Allama Iqbal Visionary

Shair-e-Mashriq, Hakeem-e-Ummat Sir Dr. Alama Mohammed Iqbal


(Note from author: I started this in 1997 and it remains “a work in progress”. I have included the unformatted discussion and feedback from our readers at the bottom of this article. As we move forward, all feedback will be included in the article.)

Iqbal, that immortal poet of Islam, whose poetry served as a beaconlight in the darkest period of our history and whose message will ever help us on the way to our destiny” Choudhary Rahmat Ali (1947, ‘Pakistan’).

Faiz Ahmed Faiz on Alama Iqbal: Revolutionary on patriot

It was the best of times. Ras Tofari became the emperor of Ethiopia. The planet Pluto was discovered by C.W. Tombaugh. All’s quiet on the Western front was playing in the theaters.

It was the worst of times in the New World. In Germany, Nazis were gaining power. D.H. Lawrence the English novelist had died. The U.S. population was 122 million, and in the land of the Dollar the bottom had fallen out of the financial markets. Wall Street was is total disarray. The stock had crashed. Savings accounts had been wiped out. People had given up hope. Many Millionaires had lost their fortunes and flung themselves out of their windows to their death. Conspicuous consumption had taken its toll. America was in the midst of a depression. It was the year 1930.

And in the old world, in the Subcontinent a dreamer, was making a speech in the city of Allahbad. He was speaking at the session of the All India Muslim League.

“It cannot be denied that Islam regarded as an ethical ideal plus certain kind of polity by which expression I mean a social structure regulated by a legal system and animated by a specific ethical idea has been chief formative factor in the life history of the Muslims of India.”

Would you like me to see Islam as a moral and political ideal, meeting the same fate in the e world of Islam as Christianity has already met in Europe ” Is it possible to retain Islam as an ethical ideal and to reject it as polity in favor of national politics in which religious attitude is not permitted to play its part ?”

Iqbal was philosophizing about separating religion form politics. He maintained that one could not put Islam in a separate compartment, and deal with the political realities of the time. Iqbal maintained that Islam had to be part and parcel of everything a Muslim did. He refuted the secular claim that one could practice religion in the mosque and live in a United India. K. Ali a noted Pakistani historian states that “the construction of a polity on national lines, if it means the displacement of the Islamic principle of solidarity, is simply unthinkable to a Muslim.”

Iqbal, speaking as the President of the All Indian Muslim League was saying “Islam is in jeopardy“, and we must save it by creating a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. Perhaps he was saying that Islam is in jeopardy in India, and we must provide it a nurturing ground, in certain parts of India, where it can grow and prosper, and influence. Iqbal went on to announce his thoughts at the Allahbad session and I quote Iqbal

” India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions …. To base a constitution on the conception of a homogeneous India …. is to prepare for a civil war.

The formation of a consolidated North West Indian State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India”.

K. Ali writes, that “of a separate Muslim state in India appeared to a be a dream of a the poet Iqbal at that time, and it was bitterly criticized. Since 1930, the idea of a separate State was gaining ground in the hearts of the Muslims of India

Iqbals’s idea was given the moniker of P-A-K-I-S-T-A-N by one Chaudry Rehmat Ali, an Indian Muslim student studying in England. Iqbal had been propagating the idea for a separate homeland for the Muslims. He had been writing to Jinnah, asking him to be the lawyer to defend the cause of the Muslims of India. Quaid-e-Azam, Mohammed Ali Jinnah took the challenge, and the rest as they say is history.

It is clear that earlier statements by Iqbal when the creation of Pakistan was still in the embryonic stage cannot be taken as his true endorsement of a united India. In the thirties almost the entire Muslim population was not entertaining the idea of separatism, and even the Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah and others were working for the unity of India.

Quaid-e-Azam, Mohammed Ali Jinnah said that:

” the differences in India, between the two major nations, the Hindus and the Muslims are a thousand times greater when compared with the continent of Europe.

India is not a national state, India is not a country, but a sub-continent composed of nationalities, the two nations being Hindus and Muslims whose culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, name and nomenclature, sense of value and proportion, laws and jurisprudence, social and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, outlook on life and of life are fundamentally different nay in many respects antagonistic”.

Any discussion of Iqbal becomes a discussion of Pakistan. That is a tribute to the poet dreamer. The discussion of Pakistan is incomplete without bringing up Iqbal, and the biography of Pakistanis is never complete without discussing the philosophy of ” The poet of the East “. FAIZ AHMAD FAIZ: Salute to a great Punjabi a fantastic Urdu poet and a giant Pakistani

The two nation theory was initially enunciated by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, dreamt by Iqbal, and preached by Mohammed Ali Jinnah. It was this enunciation of the two nation theory that appealed to the hearts and minds of Mussalmans all over the subcontinent. They in one voice voted for the Muslim League and Jinnah. Muslims from the Southern tip of Tamiland, to the Central India, to Eastern India accepted and fought for the Two nation Theory. It is incredible that the Pakistan movement began in the United Provinces of India (U.P, a conglomeration of independent princely states, that were railroaded into a province by the British) , and was led by Muslims of Northern India from Aligarh, Lucknow, and Delhi, Muslims who never had any hope of becoming part of Pakistan. Muslims all over the subcontinent voted, worked and died for the ideals dreamt by Iqbal, and preached by Jinnah.

Who was Iqbal? One of the first to advocate a separate homeland in India, Iqbal
(1876-1938) was the second crucial link in our independence struggle, the factor that took Sir Syed’s (1817-1898) ideals and passed the torch to Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)

The Freedom Struggle Torch carried through generations:

  • Sir Syed Ahmed Khan 1817-1898
  • Sir Mohammad Iqbal 1876-1938
  • Mohammad Ali Jinnah 1876-1948

Comments on Iqbal


Goals: To awaken the Muslims of India so that they could regain their lost glory and greatness. To wake up the Muslims and be more practical. To show the Muslim youth of India the path of truth and progress


Name: Mohammed Iqbal

Other names (Alaises) : Poet of the East, The Poet Thinker, The Poet who dreamt Pakistan, The poet who awakened the Muslims of India. Spiritual father of Pakistan.

Born: November, 1876 in Sialkot

Profession: Taught Philosophy and Law. Barrister at Law. Member Punjab Legislative Council 1926-1930. President of Muslim League 1930. Knighted by the British in 1992 for poetry

Hobbies and Passion, and claim to fame: Poetry in Urdu and Persian

Greatest influence:Surah e Nafas: Nietzsche and other German nation constructors


Rehmatain hain tairi aghyar keh kashanoun pur

Barq girtee heh to hum baicahray Musulmanoun pur


Education: M.A. Government College Lahore, Barrister at law England ,Doctorate in Philosophy Germany 1905-1908

Experience: Khilafat Movement: Alama Iqbal took part in the brief but important struggle that was carried out by the Muslims of the subcontinent for the restoration of the Khilifat headquartered in Turkey. In WW1 Turkey had allied itself with Germany against Britain. When Germany and Turkey were defeated in 1918 the British had abolished the Muslim caliphate at the Treaty of Versailles in 1920. The Muslims of the subcontinent (led by Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali, and Abul Kalam Azad ) were outraged, and led a nationwide campaign of agitation to protest the abolition of the Ottoman Empire Caliphate. To this day young Turks remember this movement, and think of Pakistanis as the natural successors of that movement.

All India Muslim league: He expressed great satisfaction at the formation of the Muslim League in 1906.

MPA Lahore: In 1926 Iqbal contested the election from Lahore, and won by a large majority

Nehru Report: In 1928 when the Nehru report came out, Iqbal was disappointed by the he Hindu attitude. At this juncture he made up his mind to form a separate homeland for the Muslims of India

Vision for Pakistan: In 1930 as President of the All India Muslim League, he enunciated the Two nation Theory. ” The Muslims wish to lead a life of freedom and honor. They want to live as a nation and this can be achieved if they have a separate Islamic state”.

AIML session 1936AIML session 1936

Struggle for Pakistan: To his last day, Alama Iqbal was a sincere friend of Quaid-e-Azam, assisting him in putting together a coalition of Muslims together. Iqbal was coaxing the slumbering masses to wake up and demand a homeland. Iqbal was criticized by the orthodox religious right for his “shikwah” and “jawab-shiwah”.×2p3LIq4&feature=player_embedded




Saare Jahan se Aachha/ Hindusthan Hamara

The first phase of Iqbal was as an Indian nationalist. He believed that both the Hindus and the Muslims could live together to return the subcontinent of India to its pre-British Moghul glory. This belief was made under the hypothesis that the two-century British period was an aberration in the thousand year history of South Asia. Iqbal believed that after the British left, South Asians (‘Indians’) could live together in peace and harmony and make the country great again. In the Forties, the Muslims made up about 40% of the population of South Asia (‘India’) and Hindus were in slight majority. However the cultural and social centers of South Asia were in the hands of the Muslims. During this phase of his life Iqbal believed that South Asia is as big as Western Europe could compete as a great nation against Europe, America and China. Jinnah at the time also experimented with unity and was called “The ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity “.

Here is Iqbal clearly disassociating himself from the scheme of Pakistan though he still defends his Allahbad speech made four years earlier

Dr. Sir Mohd. Iqbal Kt. M. A., Ph.D. Barrister-at-Law, Lahore

4th March 1934 My dear Mr. Thompson

I have just received your review of my book. It is excellent and I am grateful to you for the very kind things you have said of me. But youhave made one mistake which I hasten to point out as I consider itrather serious. You call me [a] protagonist of the scheme called‘ Pakistan’. Now Pakistan is not my scheme. The one that I suggestedin my address is the creation of a Muslims Province–i.e. a province having an overwhelming population of Muslims–in the North west of India. This province will be, according to my scheme,a part of the proposed Indian Federation.

Pakistan scheme proposes a separate federation of Muslim Provinces directly related to England as a separate dominion. This scheme originated in Cambridge. The authors of this scheme believe that we Muslim Round Tablers have sacrificed the Muslim nation on the altar of Hindu orso called Indian Nationalism

Yours sincerely,

Mohammad Iqbal



Disappointed by the Hindu attitudes, Iqbal began to think himself as a Muslim first, and an ‘Indian’ second. During this stage of his thinking, Alama Iqbal began believing in Pan-Islamism. Iqbal worked with Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali and Abul Kalaam Azad. He actively wrote poems on his belief that all Muslims should think of themselves as Muslims first. Caste and Creed were to be given up, and nationalism was shunned for the crescent and star.

Cheen-o-Arab hamara, Hindustan hamara

Muslim main hum, watan hai sara jahan hamara

Tauheed ki amanat senon main hai hamarey

Asan nahin mitana naam-o-nishaan hamara

Duniya kay bu’t kadon main, wo pehla ghar Khuda ka

Hum uss kay pasban hain, wo pasban hamara

Baatil say dabney waley, aey Asman! nahin hum

Sou baar ker chuka hai Tu imtihan hamara

Salar-e-Karwan hai Meer-e-Hijaaz (PBUH) apna

Iss naam say hai baaqi, aaram-e-jahan hamara

Iqbal ka tarana baang-e-dara hai goya

Hota hai jada paima, phir karwan hamara

(Meanings: Cheen-o-Arab = China and Arabia; Hindustan = India; watan = homeland; jahan = world; Tauheed ki amanat = Islam; Senon = Insight; asan = easy; mitana = eliminate; naam-o-nishan = survival; bu’t kadon = idol temples; pehla ghar Khuda ka = Referring to Khana Kaaba; pasban = Protector; Baatil = Oppression; Dabney waley = Oppressed; Asman = Nature; Salar-e-Karwan = Leader of Caravan; Meer-e-Hijaaz (PBUH) = Muhammad (PBUH); Aaram-e-jahan = satisfaction; Tarana = Anthem; bang-e-dara = Voice of bell; jada paima = reactivate)


Iqbal wrote on the concept of self.

” Khoodi ko kur bulund itna kai khuda bundai say khood poochay, buta teri ruzaa kiya hai “.

This concept of self asked the Muslims to improve their lot by themselves, and not be at the mercy of any other person or nationality.





باطل سے دبنے والے اسماں نھیں سو بار کت چکا ھي امتھاں ھمارا

توشاھیں ھے بسيرا کر پھاڑوں کي چٹانوںپر
پلٹنا چھپٹنا چھپٹ کے پلٹنا
لھو گرمانے کا ھے بھانا

Tu shaaheen hai, basaira kar pharaon kee chatanon pur”..

“Jhapatna palatna, palat kar jhapatna;

Lahu garm rakhne ka hai ik bahana”…..Alama Iqbal

This is the third and final stage of Iqbal’s’ thinking patterns. Influenced by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan writings, Iqbal changed his thinking. During this phase of his life, Iqbal worked for the All India Muslim League, whose sole purpose was the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the Subcontinent

Of his different phases Iqbal himself wrote:

” I have myself been of he view hat religious differences should disappear from this country, and even now act on the principle, in my private life. But now I think that the preservation of their national identities is desirable for both the Hindus and the Muslims. The vision of a common nationhood for India is a beautiful idea, and has a poetic appeal, but looking to the present conditions and the unconscious trends of the two communities, appears incapable of fulfillment”.

By the year 1941 He was indeed a firm believer in Pakistan and the Two Nation Theory

” Cant you see that a Muslim, when he was converted more than a thousand years ago, bulk of them, then according to your hindureligion and philosophy, he becomes an outcast and he becomes aMalecha (an untouchable) and the Hindus ceased to have anythingto do with him socially , religiously , culturaly or in any otherway? He, therefore belongs to a different order not merely religiousbut social and he has lived in that distinctly separate and antagonostic social order, religiously, socially and culturally…can you posibally compare this with that nonsensical talk thatmere change of faith is no ground for a demand for Pakistan? Cantyou see the fundamantle difference ? “2 march 1941. Pres. address toPunjab Muslim Students Fed.

As can be seen from the above that the entire Muslim nation of India did not actually believe in “Pakistan” untill after the failure of the Cabinet Mission Plan. It was after the failure of the CMP that Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League had accepted that the MOVEMENT TOWARDS Pakistan or an independent Muslim state began. Earlier writings from Iqbal DO NOT DETRACT anything from Iqbal becasue as early as 1930 he WAS propogating a SEPERATE identity of the Muslims of India.Iqbal’s vs Goethe’s: Deja Vu in Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan

Nikal kay sehra say jis nay Roma ki saltanat ko ulat diya tha

Suna hai qudsiyon say main nay, wo sher phir hoshyar ho ga

Khuda kay bandey tou hain hazaron, banon main phirtey hain marey marey

Main uss ka banda banon ga jis ko Khuda kay bandon say pyar ho ga

(Meanings: saltanat = State; ulat = to conquer; Qudsiyon = fortune tellers; sher = lion (referring to Sultan Salah ud Din Ayubi and other brave Muslims); hoshyar = Attention; banon = forests)



Any good writing on Iqbal must discuss his criticism. Here is an Indian author trying to shred the Pakistan ideaology:

Much is made of Iqbal as the philospher of Partition. In this connection his address to the Allahabad Muslim League Session 1930 is lavishly quoted. The reader is never informed that the British had split the League into Shafi Leag-ue and Jinnah League, after League president Jinnah had decided to boycott the Simon Commission.

Iqbal was only presiding over the pro-British Shafi League, attended by less than a hundred delegates. Nor is the reader told that, in his later years, Iqbal thought better of Jawaharlal than of Jinnah and that he wrote to Edward Thomson (vide ‘Enlist India for Freedom’, p. 58) that “the Pakistan Plan would be disastrous to the British Government, disastrous to the Hindu community, disastrous to the Muslim community. But I am the President of the (Shafi) Muslim League and it is, therefore, my duty to support it”.

This is what Sanjeev Sharma says about Iqbal:

“Iqbal never was for a total separate state for Muslimsof India, he wanted them to have a self-determinationin federal republic of India, and even until hedied nowhere in his poems or anywhere we have anyevidence of his support for the dominion of a Pakistan outside of India, matter of the fact is thatonly after he died in 1938, Muslim league passeda resolution in 1940 at Lahore for a seperate stateof Pakistan, at that Jinnah was its leader.Iqbal, was a great poet no doubt about it, buta politician! no way, and Jinnah ,not only he failed to realized what will happen 40 years down but alsohe was directly responsible of 4-10 million murders,and largest migration of this history on earth. Again Iqbal, was never for this blood shed and migration, he insisted on the federal states ofindia, unlike Jinnah, who wanted to have a statefor him”.Criticism from the Religious Right Mualvi establishment

Iqbal was severely criticized for attacking the establishment. His book Zarb-e-Kaleem was titled “Declaration of War against the establishment of Today“. His articles, poems and anthologies attacked the status quo and asked the Muslims to raise their lot. His poems “Shikwah” and “Jawab-e-Shikwah” were severely criticized by the maulvis of his day. In “Shikwah” Iqbal complains to god about the poor lot of the Muslims, and in “Jawab Shikwah” Iqbal plays God and answers man. Many orthodox Muslims called Iqbal a “kafir” for this innovation in his poetry.

I consider “shikwah” good poetry. I wouldn’t have had it memorized otherwise. For the firebrand ideologue Shikwah has great inspirational power. But “shikwah” (together with most of Iqbal’s excellent poetry) has limited ideological appeal. If you are a Hindu, you’ll be disgusted by “shikwah”. (Remember the “muNh ke bal gir kay hua Allah aHad kehtay thay” part.) In a larger context I see this as a conflict between the classic ghazal and what they call “maqsadi sha’iri”.

German influence in Iqbal’s writings (Doctorate in Philosophy Germany 1905-1908)

Iqbal was greatly influenced by the German philosophers of his time, Soren Kierkegaard, Fredrick Wilhelm Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer. During his stay in Germany the ‘country’ (the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Prussia) was going though its great nationalistic binge. …..The Nazis used Nietzsche for building a nation that was defeated in war, was disarmed, was occupied and was split up into small portions. German states were trying to come together as a nation.

Iqbal’s response was that his inspiration was “Surah Hashar” of the Quran and not any other.

Iqbal was greatly influenced by the German’s nation attempt to re-construct itself. He thought he could transfer the concept to his homeland India. Iqbal is said to have been particularly affected by the German philosopher Nietzsche. Some have even accused him of plagiarizing German concepts. In Nietzsche’s famous Thus Spake Zaratustra (1883-85) Nietzsche “introduced in eloquent poetic prose the concepts of the superman and the will to power …. such a heroic man of merit has the courage … to rise above the masses. Some scholars compare Iqbal’s concepts of Mard-e-Momin to the Nietzsche ‘superman’, and Iqbal’s Khudi to Nietzsche’s will to power. There is no denying the influence of Nietzsche on Iqbal poetry. Iqbal was intelligent enough to use the German concepts for a positive purpose for his own people.

Comparison with Ghalib and Profoundness of Poetry

American research scholars like Marcus and Vonetta Franda have called Iqbal “One of the greatest poets of the Indian subcontinent “. However some researches have compared Iqbal to other great Indian poets like Ghalib, and have found Iqbal’s’ poems trite in comparison. The depth of Ghalib can not be found in Iqbal’s poetry. One Pakistani poet said “Iqbal’s poetry conveys a profound message but is not profound.”Perhaps Iqbal was writing for the common man, and did not want to complicate the message. Iqbal was on a mission. Ghalib, like Wordsworth, and Tennyson and others were poets without missions.


Awami National Party leader Wali Khan waved a document at a teachers’s function to prove that poet Mohammad Iqbal had not conceived the idea of Pakistan. The document was a letter from the late poet in which he said he had never provided any idea about the creation of Pakistan.

The same letter reveals that it was Sir Zafarullah Khan who originally mooted the idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

Source: UNI, June 1, 1996

Iqbal was one of the greatest sons of the subcontinent. He was born in the social, and political backwaters of the subcontinent, Sialkot, and acheived greatness in spite of his humble beginings. He galvanized a subdued and defeated nation who were under the yoke of British colonialism. The Muslims of the subcontinent of had lost their Mughal empire to the British, and and lost the economic and educational battle against the Hindus. The Hindus had gained a status in India that was of greater importance. The Muslims were truly third class citizens of India. Iqbal attempted and succeeded in combining the Muslims of different creeds, castes, and nd linguistic groups into a concept of nationhood based on Islam. Pakistan was but the inevitable result of his efforts.

IHSAN IBN ASLAM says about Iqbal:

I promised recently that I’d deal separately with this subject. So here it is! Lovely, juicy myths. Contrary to a widely held belief, Allama Iqbal did NOT propose an independent Muslim State in 1930.That was the demand of Choudhary Rahmat Ali in 1933. I make my point by reference to original sources, including a vital letter of Iqbal dated 1934 in which he disowned and disassociated himself from the Pakistan scheme.-Ihsan



All people have a tendency to exaggerate and to create myths around their heroes and historical events. One such myth is that which surrounds Allama Iqbal’s address in 1930. In this address, Iqbal is widely quoted as proposing the creation of an independent Muslim State. Renowned historians such as Prof. S. Wolpert and Dr Ishtiaq H. Qureshi, as well as writers such as Rajmohan Gandhi and almost every Pakistani commenting on this address is of this view. However, this view is NOT based on fact and is not supported either by the full and original text or by other statements by Iqbal himself. The view is based on *misquotes* from the address and unsupported *interpretations*. Here I look at the original text of the address and provide other relevant sources, particularly a vital, but little-known (ignored?), letter of Iqbal dated 1934. Iqbal was a brilliant poet, but politics was not his strength.



The article concerns Iqbal’s presidential address at the annual session of the All-India Muslim League held at Allahabad on December 29, 1930. The text of the address stretches just over 19 pages and is

divided into the following sections:

Islam and Nationalism

Muslim India within India

Federal States

The Simon Report

Hindu Machinations

The Problem of Defence

The Alternative

The Conclusion

The famous (mis)quote is from the section “Muslim India within India”, which speaks for itself. Had people even made a cursory glance at this address they would have seen that Iqbal is talking throughout about Muslims *within* India, ie. a part of the country India.


“…Personally I would go further than the demands embodied in it[resolution of All-Parties Muslim Conference at Delhi in 1928concerning Muslim India within India]. I would like to see thePunjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan*amalgamated* into a *single state*. Self-Government within theBritish Empire, or without the British Empire, and the formation ofa consolidated North-West Indian *Muslim state* appears to me to bethe final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.The proposal was put forward before the Nehru Committee. Theyrejected it on the ground that, if, carried into effect, it wouldgive a very *unwieldy state*…Thus, possessing full opportunity ofdevelopment *within* the body-politic of India, the North-WestIndian Muslims will prove the best defenders of *India*…Nor shouldthe Hindus fear that the creation of *autonomous Muslim states*… I, therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state inthe best interests of India and Islam…For India it meanssecurity and peace resulting from an *internal balance* of power…


The highlights in the quote above (*) have been added. Some points to bear in mind are the following:

(i) Though this was Iqbal’s presidential address to the Muslim League, he was not speaking *officially* for he prefixed his suggestion by “Personally I would…”. His personal proposal was not binding on the Muslim League, who never passed any resolution in support of it and did not adopt Iqbal’s idea as a policy.

(ii) The crucial misquote turns Iqbal’s “state” (small ‘s’) into “State” (capital ‘s’). Iqbal is using “state” as a synonym for “province” and not referring to State, as in an independent country. Note that he is speaking of “amalgamating” the four provinces for the “formation” of a larger “consolidated” “single state” within India.

(iii) In the proper context of the whole address the the “Self-Government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire” refers to India, of which Iqbal’s large Muslim province/state was an integral part of.

(iv) That he is talking of this province/state *within* India is quite obvious from the quote. Also, as noted above, this quote is headed “Muslim India within India”. Iqbal is speaking of Muslims “within the body-politic of India” and speaks of them defending India and the large Muslim province/state providing “internal balance of power”. It can only be “internal” if it was a part of India. The Nehru Committee rejecting this suggestion as an “unwieldy state”, obviously means a large, cumbersome province difficult to administer as a unit of India. A reading of the whole address bears this out. The section following this one is entitled “Federal States”, for example, which puts the proposal of the “redistribution of territory” for the formation large Muslim province/state into context: it’s a federal unit of India. In “Hindu Machinations” he mentions the Round Table Conference proposal for an “All-India Federation” for India.


Crucial evidence clarifying Iqbal’s 1930 address came to light in 1979 with the publication of Iqbal’s letters to Edward Thompson of Oxford (Ahmad 1979). Almost all historians and writers have failed to refer to this vital source of information. Of the letters, one dated March 4, 1934 is the most important, since it deals directly with the issue. Without much ado, I’ll now let Iqbal speak for himself.



Dr. Sir Mohd. Iqbal Kt. M. A., Ph.D.

Barrister-at-Law, Lahore

4th March 1934

My dear Mr. Thompson

I have just received your review of my book. It is excellent and I amgrateful to you for the very kind things you have said of me. But youhave made one mistake which I hasten to point out as I consider itrather serious. You call me [a] protagonist of the scheme called ‘Pakistan’. Now Pakistan is not my scheme. The one that I suggested in my address is the creation of a Muslims Province–i.e. aprovince having an overwhelming population of Muslims–in the North west of India. This province will be, according to my scheme,a part of the proposed Indian Federation. Pakistan scheme proposesa separate federation of Muslim Provinces directly related toEngland as a separate dominion. This scheme originated inCambridge. The authors of this scheme believe that we Muslim Round Tablers have sacrificed the Muslim nation on the altar of Hindu orso called Indian Nationalism

Yours sincerely,

Mohammad Iqbal



(i) Note that he disassociates himself from the “serious” “mistake” of attributing the Pakistan idea to him.

(ii) This is the earliest evidence of Iqbal using the term “Pakistan”, which speaks of its wide and popular usage within a year of its invention (1933).

(iii) Iqbal clearly states that his 1930 proposal was to do with the “creation of a Muslim Province” as a “part of the proposed [Round Table Conference] Indian Federation“, i.e. not a separate Muslim State.

(iv) The Pakistan scheme “originated in Cambridge” and proposed a separate Muslim Federation of Muslim provinces. This proposal orginated in the Pakistan Declaration issued on January 28, 1933 from Cambridge and the movement launched by Choudhary Rahmat Ali (the only signatory of the Declaration from Cambridge). Iqbal must have read the Declaration. His last statement on the “Muslim Round Tablers“, of whom Iqbal was a *member*, comes from the Declaration, which condemned the Muslim members in no uncertain terms. Incidentally, Iqbal and Rahmat Ali met during Iqbal’s attendance of the Round Table Conferences in 1931 and 1932 (the Iqbal/Rahmat Ali relationship merits a separate post).


In the letter above Iqbal comments on the 1933 Pakistan Declaration. Here is a relevant quote from the Declaration on Iqbal’s Address:

“This demand [for Pakistan, which included Kashmir] is basicallydifferent from the suggestion put forward by Doctor Sir MohammedIqbal in his Presidential address to the All-India Muslim League in1930. While he proposed the amalgamation of these Provinces into asingle state forming a unit of the All-India Federation, we proposethat these Provinces should have a separate Federation of theirown.” Self-explantory. 5. CONCLUSION There are other relevant sources which help understand Iqbal’s 1930 Address in the correct light (Ahmad 1942, Ali 1947, and see Aziz 1987 for detailed discussion). However, I think the above should be sufficient to dispel the myth that Iqbal proposed a separate Muslim State in his address. An explanation as to why the myth continues to be perpetrated lies party with the “founding party of Pakistan”, the All-India Muslim League, and partly with historians and other writers. Here is my interpretation, but first a list of important dates:

December 29, 1930: Iqbal’s Allahabad address

January 28, 1933: Rahmat Ali’s Pakistan Declaration

March 24, 1940: A-I Muslim League adopts Lahore Res.

August 14, 1947: Independence Day of Pakistan

After passing the Lahore (”Pakistan”) resolution in 1940, the League tried to find some sort of historical base for their decision after seven years of opposing Rahmat Ali’s Pakistan scheme.

Instead of acknowledging the 1933 Pakistan Declaration, which essentially remains unknown to this date, they jumped to Iqbal’s 1930 Allahabad address. Here, from their political perspective, they had two plus points: first, the address was by a renowned Muslim poet, who was later to be adopted officially as the “Poet of Pakistan”, and, second, the address was at the annual session of their party. As for their opposition to, and non-acknowledgement of, Rahmat Ali and his Movement, that is outside the scope of this article.The Allahabad myth is partly also due to poor scholarship, where reference is not made to original sources, and misquotes have led to misinterpretations or interpretations are made which are contrary to other relevant sources, including Iqbal’s own works. Iqbal did not “convert” to the idea of Pakistan until about 1937 when he wrote letters to the then President of the All-India Muslim League, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. It is said that about this time Iqbal expressed an interest to join Rahmat Ali’s Movement, but he died soon thereafter (Wasti 1982). In conclusion, then, Allama Iqbal did NOT propose an independent Muslim State in 1930. That is the stuff of the myth-makers.


ALI, CHOUDHARY RAHMAT, 1933, “Now or Never: Are we to Live or Perish for Ever?”, Cambridge.

ALI, CHOUDHARY RAHMAT, 1947, “Pakistan: Fatherland of the Pak Nation”, Pakistan National Movement, Cambridge

AHMAD, KHAN A., 1942, “The Founder of Pakistan: From Trial to Triumph”, London. (The “Founder” referred to is Rahmat Ali.) AHMAD, S. HASAN, 1979, “Iqbal: His Political Ideas at the

Crossroads: A Commentary on Unpublished Letters to Professor Thompson”, Aligarh.

AZIZ, K.K., 1987, “A History of the Idea of Pakistan”, Vol.1, p.184-327, Vanguard, Lahore.

IQBAL, M., 1930, “Presidential Address”, _in_ RAIS AHMAD JAFRI (NADVI), (ed.), “Rare Documents”.

IQBAL, M., 1934, “Letter to E. Thompson dated March 4, 1934″ _in_Ahmad 1979, see above.

WASTI, S.M., 1982, “My Reminiscences of Choudhary Rahmat Ali”, Royal Book Co., Karachi, 175pp.


Cambridge University: The libraries of Emmanuel College, Centre of South Asian Studies, and the University. Shahid Karim

Ihsan Ibn Aslam, Cambridge,England: Ar-Rahman, 55:60

Allama Dr Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)


1930 Allahabad address:

“The Muslims of India are suffering from two evils.The first is the want of personalities…By leadersI mean men who, by Divine gift or experience, possessa keen perception of the spirit and destiny of Islam,long with an equally keen perception of the trend of modern history. Such men are really the driving forces of a people, but they are God’s gift and cannot be made to order. The second evil from which the Muslims of India are suffering is that the ommunity is fast losing what is called the herd instinct.”

Source: Allama’s presidential address at the annual session of the All-India Muslim League held at Allahabad in 1930. Full text in “Rare Documents”.



From: (Ali Abbas)


Dr Mohammad Iqbal, the Poet of the East.

Whoever makes a covenant with the Omnipresent,

Is freed from the bondage of all (false) gods.

A believer’s existence is dependent on Love,

While Love, for its manifestation, is dependent on the believer,

What is impossible for mortals is rendered possible through Love.

Reason is ruthlessly sharp, but Love is sharper;

It is chaster, more shrewd, more daring.

Reason is lost in the maze of cause and effect;

Love is the champion in the field of action.

Love captures its prey through sheer strength;

While Reason captures through deceit by laying a snare.

Doubt and fear are the assets of Reason;

Self-Confidence and firmness of puryose are the integral

parts of Love.

Reason builds to destroy,

While Love destroys to re-create.

Reason has a little value like the air in this World,

Love is highly inestimable.

Reason is absorbed in questioss of how and how much;

Love in its purity transcends them.

Reason advises self-assertion,

While Love counsels self-examination.

Reason is indebted to other things for knowledge.

Love originates in grace (of God) and is contended with self


Reason says, Be happy and prosper,

While Love advises, Surrender thyself and be free.

Love finds both comfort and consolation in freedom,

Freedom is its source of guidance.

Have’nt you heard how summarily, on the occasion of the great conflict,

Love dealt with conceited Reason.

That Imam (Chief) of all lovers, the son of Fatima,

That cypress in the Prophet’s garden.

What a marvellous phenomenon ! (Husains) great

grand-father (Ishmael) set the first example of self sacrifice,

Whose meaning and significance became fully explicit

in him (Husain) the great grand-son.

For that Prince of ideal character (Husain),

The last Prophet offered his own shoulder as a substitute for

a camel’s back.

Love’s majestic visage glowing with pride because of

the blood of the martyred Husain,

The colourfulness of this line is due to the theme of martyrdom.

Husain’s unique position in the muslim community,

Is like the honoured place Occupied by the verse (Qul ho-Allah)

in the Quran.

Moses and Pharoah, Husain and Yazeed,

They are, but the conflicting forces of life.

Truth survives and triumphs because of Husain.

Falsehood is destined to meet with failure and grief.

At the moment when the leadership of the faithful broke the link with

the Quran,

Human freedom was poisoned in the blood.

There arose a man, the best of the best among nations,

Like a rain-laden eastern cloud, bringing water to a parched,

rocky soil.

This cloud rained for a moment on Karbala,

Causing the desert to bloom and passed on.

He (Husain) exterminated tyranny for ever,

From his martyred blood, there rose a new garden (of human values)

in the wilderness.

Writhing in dust and blood for defending truth,

He became the corner stone of “La Ilah”

Had Power been his objective,

He would have not set forth so ill-equipped.

His enemies were in multitude just like the sands of the desert,

While the number of his companions was equal to the numerical

value of the word Yezdan (72).

In him (Husain), the mystery of Abraham and Ishmael unfolds and expounds


He is the illustration of their faith.

His will was firm as a rock;

Swift and triumphant (like a river).

The sword was for him a weapon meant solely for the defence of the faith;

And the protection of the Divine Law.

The muslim owes allegiance to none but Allah.

His head never bows before a tyrant.

This was the secret that Husain unveiled with his blood.

And roused his people from slumber.

When he (Husain) unsheathed the sword of denial of false gods;

He caused the blood to flow from the veins of their supporters.

He inscribed the words Illallah on the desert sands of Karbala,

Thus, he imprinted the first line of the charter of our salvation.

It is from Husain that we have learnt the hidden meaning of the

Holy word (Quran).

The flames of burning faith we borrowed from his fire.

The splendour that was once Syria and Baghdad;

And the glory of Granada are all now a forgotten tale.

At the touch of Husain’s plectrum the strings of our being still vibrate;

His cry of Allah o Akbar still keeps our Faith alive.

O Wind! Thou messenger of far-flung people !

Present our tears to the sacred dust that covers Husain’s remains.

Shikwa-Jawab Shikwa Complaint and Answer Translated by:A.J. Arberry

This is what Khalid Muhammed Shahzad says about the poet of the East

The ‘Shikwa‘ and the ‘Jawab-i-Shikwa’, are among the most popular of Iqbal’s poems; they are deservedly celebrated, for they are among the first to bring their author fame as an advocate of Islamic reform and rebirth. The date of their compsition can be fixed very accurately by a reference to contemporary events contained in the second of them; when Iqbal wrote -

Now the onslaught of the Bulgars sounds the trumpet of alarm’ he was commemorating the invasion of Turkey by Bulgaria in the late autumn of 1912, an attack which threatened at one time to penetrate as far as Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire and the last home of the Caliphate.

These poems were therefore composed four years after Iqbal’s return from Europe. They mark the beginning of that remarkable career as philosopher and poet which brought Iqbal ever-increasing renown, until he was recognized as the leading thinker of ISLAM in India and the greatest figure in Urdu literature. It is all the more interesting to find him adumbrating in these early pieces that theory of Selfhood (Khudi) and Selflessness (Bekhudi) which later played such an important part in his religious and political philosophy.

The central theme of both poems is the decay of Islam from its former greatness, and the measures to be adopted if it was to re-establish its authority and regain its vitality. The subject was, of course, not a new one; ever since the decline and final extinction of the Moghul Empire, Muslims in India had been searching their minds and their consciences for the explanation of so lamentable a disaster. Nor were Indian Muslims alone in deploring the seeming collapse of Islamic civilization; their co-religionists further West, from Persia to Morocco, had been occupied with the same self-examination. But in these two poems Iqbal stated the problem in singularly arresting directness; the literary form chosen for its exposition, a dialogue between the poet, as a spokesman for Muslims the world over, and God – this dramatic presentation of the common dilemma made an immediate and compelling appeal to Iqbal’s public, an appeal moreover which has lost nothing of its force in the intervening years.

To make a worthy translation of these poems into English is certainly no easy task. To begin wuth, the translator ( A.J. Arberry) has to confess to a very inadequate knowledge of Urdu, the language used by Iqbal on this occasion. Left to his own devices, he would been obliged to abandon the attempt; but the publisher, Sh. M. Ashraf, procured for him a literal rendering of the originals into English prose, ably executed by Mazheruddin Siddiqi, to whom the grateful and cordial thanks of the writer are hereby expressed. But that is by no means the end of the matter; Iqbal naturally illustrated his discourse with metaphors and references familiar enough to those accustomed to read Urdu poetry, but in many instances utterly strange, indeed outlandish, to an English audience. Rather than impose on the poet transformations, of which he would certainly and justly have disapproved, the translator has preferred to reproduce his model as closely and as faithfully as he could, appending notes to his version to light up the dark passages wherever they are found.

Kiyu* ziya’ kar banu* sood framosh rahu* ?

(Why must I forever suffer loss, oblivious to gain ?)

Fikr-e-farda na karu* mehv-e-gham-edosh rahu*?

(Why think not upon the morrow, drowned in grief for yesterday ?)

Naale bubul ke sunu* aur hama tan gosh rahu*

(Why must I attentive heed the nightingale’s lament of pain ?)

Ham navaa! mai* bhi koi gul hoo* ke khamosh rahu* ?

(Fellow-bard! am I rose, dondemned to silence all the way?)

Jur’at aamoze miri taab-e-sukhan mujh ko

No; the burning power of song bids me be bold and not to faint;

Shikwa Allah(s.w.t.) se “khakam badahan” hai muhj ko Dust be in my mouth, but God – He is the theme of my complaint.


The gallant Arab warriors were ready with their swords

The land of Syria was awaiting for them as a bride waits for

henna to be put on her

And also if Iqbal was not an Arab why he wrote a poem “Taariq ke Duaa”.

“The prayer of Taariq bin Ziyaad in the battlefield in Spain”. One verse

in that poem reads

KhayabaN mein hey muntazir lala kub sey

Qubaa chaheay iss ko khoon e arab se

The lala (a kind of flower) has been waiting for long in the garden

It needs its color from the blood of the Arabs

“Khitaab ba jawaanaan e Islam” in which he says to the young Muslim.

You have been reared by a nation

that crushed the crown of Darius under its feet

O what should I tell you of those desert dwellers

They were a people that overcame the whole world

They understood the world

They beautified the world

They took care of the wrold

They were the founders of the greatest civilization

They showed the world how to govern

And they were simply a people from the deserts of Arabia

i.e. the home of the camel herders

How dare Iqbal also says in one of his poems

I would let the hindu in India open his mouth

Only if he is not going to say anything derogatory about Arab leaders

Hasn’t our nation been taught the rule

To get close to Mohammad you have to get away from Abu Lahab

The world of Arabs is not founded on geographic boundaries

The world of Arabs is simply founded on belief in Mohammad

It is getting outrageous on part of Iqbal. Iqbal also said

If the Jews have a right over Palestine

Why don’t then the Arabs have a right over Spain

Iqbal said in one of his poems

I am descended from a pure Somnathi family.

My ancestors were true lovers and worshippers of Laat and Manaat

Note: Somnath was a big hindu temple about 1000 years ago.

Laat and manaat are names of two idols (gods) which have been

worshipped in some form or the other by all pagan people and

were the major attaraction in the Kaaba before Islam.

Here he talks about his Hindu lineage and that also from a pure Brahmin family.

So even though Iqbal’s ancestors had been stalwarts of Hinduism until a couple

hundred years ago the light of Islam had pentrated their hearts now. And there

is no turning back from the straight path once it has been found.

That is not all Iqbal also uses Khushaal Khan Khattak in a similar poem as “The advice of a Wise Baloch” to convey the message of self-respect and developing self-confidence in one’s self. The poem is titled “The advice of Khushaal Khan Khattak”. Also Iqbal has a whole set of twenty poems and ghazals under a section titled “Mehraab Gul Afghaan ke Afkaar”. Meaning “The thoughts of Mehraab Gul Afghaan”. I don’t know who Mehraab Gul was. But Iqbal uses his thoughts to teach something positive to everybody.So should we ask if Iqbal was a pure Pashtoon. If he was not then he cannot use the positive qualities of Pushtoons and teach them to others who lack them.In the world of people who are wrapped up in a shell of fake and hollow pride one human being cannot learn from another human being. In their world there are unpassable barriers to cultural interaction and social inter-course. But their fake world will not be able to withstand the onslaught of the true spirit of human civilization. If we would not be so blind to read our own histories of how our cultures have been formed. Culture is not something static. It is the most dynamic phenomenon known to man. If you come in the way of cultural intermingling you will only destroy yourself.Going back to Iqbal. Iqbal talked about ants, flowers, women, Turks, Arabs, Indians, Europeans, cows, goats, sqirrels, camels, mountains, rivers, Lenin, Mussolini and thousands of other things. And so has every other poet befor him and after him done the same, talk about things.I could talk about all the poets that have existed and because of their spirit of love and their preacing of cultural interaction their names (and message) will last till the end of the world. I could talk about Sachal Sarmast, Amir Khusro, Shah AbdulLatif Bhitai, Amir Karore, Bhulley Shah, Waaris Shah, Bahadur Shah. The message of all these people is the same. They use different words and different styles but they teach us the same message. That message is the brotherhood of mankind.I would use the words of Iqbal himself to conclude

BayaaN meiN nuktae tawheed to aa sakta hey

terey dimagh meiN butkhaana ho to kiya keheay

Yes! I can explain the idea of oneness of God to you

But if you have a whole temple full of idols in your head

what good it would do for me to explain allthat tawheed to you

This is what Nadeem Jamali says

Jang-e-yarmook… the poem is specifically about a certain warTariq bin Ziad… this is about what a particular person saidKhitab ba jawanaan….. here Iqbal is addressing MuslimsHindu…. Iqbal is expressing his feelingsPalestine… again Iqbal’s own feelings In the poem about the “Wise Baloch”, Iqbal is pretending to know how a wise Baloch thinks. He is not writing about one particular person… he’s trying to make a statement about the Baloch way of thinking in general. Unless he has based the poem on something, it is logical to raise the question. And mind you, I only asked if anyone knows the background.

This is what Khurram has contributed on Iqbal:

Majnun nay shehar chora tu sehra bhi chor dayNazaray ki havas ho to Laila bhi chor dayWa’iz kamal-i-tarak say milti hai ya’n muradDunya jo chor dee hai to Uqba bhi chor day

TRANSLATION: Majnun left the cities for the wilderness of the deserts, but you (O dervish) also renounce the latterIf you deire for ‘Mushahidas’ also give up your LailaO Preacher! Renunciation leads one to the goal on this path. Now that you have given up dunya also renounce the Hereafter

The essence of these verses is:

When a passionate desire (for his Lord) surges in the heart of a man

Then this wingless person gives birth to a Ruh-ul Amin within him

There’s a punjabi quadruplet on the same topic:

Zahid zuhd kamanday thakay rozay nafal namazaan HuAashiq gharq huay vich Wahdat fillah nal Muhabat razaan HuMakhi qaid shehad vich phati ki ur’si naal Shebazaan HuJinhan majlis naal Nabi Sarwar day Bahu O sahib raaz niazan HuThe ascetic died of rigorous prayers and attained paradise The Lover, in love for Allah, drowned in the ocean of Oneness and attained his LordA bee so caught in honey’s snares, how can it accompany the hawkBahu, those who attend the Holy Majlis of the Last messenger, they are the possessors of Divine knowledge

This is what Altaf Bhimji contibutes on Iqbal:

Excerpts from the Mysteries of Selflessness

A Philosophical Poem by Muhammad Iqbal

Translated, with Introduction and Notes by

Professor A.J.Arberry (First Edition 1953 –out of print)

Muhammad Iqbal (1876-1938) was not only the leading Urdu poet of his generation, but is considered by many as the spiritual founder of Pakistan. His writings were certainly most influential in preparing the way for the independence of Pakistan. As a philosopher and a thinker he is one of the greatest figures in modern Islam. In the Mysteries of Selflessness Iqbal puts forward his views on the relationship between the Individual and the State, of course from the Muslim standpoint, using the language and rich imagery of Persian poetry.

Dedication to the Muslim Community

You, who were made by God to be the Seal (i)Of all the peoples dwelling upon earthThat all beginnings might in you find end;Whose saints were prophetlike, whose wounded heartsWove into unity the soul of men;Why are you fallen now so far astrayFrom Mecca’s holy Kabba, all bemusedBy the strange beauty of the Christian’s way?The very skies are but a gatheringOf your street’s dust, yourselves the cynosureOf all men’s eyes; whither in restless hasteDo you now hurry like a storm-tossed wave,What new diversion seeking? No, but learn The mystery of ardor from the mothAnd make your lodgment in the burning flame;Lay Love’s foundation-stone in your own soul, And to the Prophet pledge anew your troth.My mind was weary of Christian company,When suddenly your beauty stood unveiled,My fellow-minstrel sang the epiphany (ii)Of alien loveliness, the lovelorn themeOf tresses and soft cheeks, and rubbed his browAgainst the saki’s door, rehearsed the chantOf Magian wenches. I would martyr beTo your brow’s scimitar, am fain to restLike dust upon your street. Too proud am ITo mouth base panegyrics, or to bowMy stubborn head to every tyrant’s courtTrained up to fashion mirrors out of words, I need not Alexander’s magic glass (iii)My neck endures not men’s munificence; Where roses bloom, I gather close the skirt Of my soul’s bud. Hard as the dagger’s steelI labor in life, my luster winFrom the tough granite. Though I am a sea,Not restless is my billow; in my handI hold no whirlpool bowl. A painted veilAm I, no blossom’s perfume-scattering, No prey to every billowing breeze that blows.I am a glowing coal within Life’s fire.And wrap me in my embers for a cloak.An now my soul comes suppliant to your doorBringing a gift of ardor passionate.A mighty water out of heaven’s deepMomently trickles o’er my burning breast,The which I channel narrower than a brookThat I may fling it in your garden’s dish.Because you are beloved by him I loveI fold you to me closely as my heart.Since Love first made the breast an instrumentOf fierce lamenting, by its flame my heartWas molten to a mirror; like a roseI pluck my breast apart, that I may hangThis mirror in your sight. Gaze you thereinOn your own beauty, and you shall becomeA captive fettered in your tresses’ chain.I chant again the tale of long ago,To be your bosom’s old wounds bleed anew. So for a people no more intimateWith its own soul I supplicated God,That He might grant to them a firm-knit life.In the mid watch of night, when all the worldWas hushed in slumber, I made loud lament;My spirit robbed of patience and repose,Unto the Living and Omnipotent GodI made my litany; my yearning heartSurged, till its blood streamed from my weeping eyes“How long, O Lord, how long the tulip-glow,The begging of cool dewdrops from the dawn?Lo, like a candle wrestling with the nightO’er my own self I pour my flooding tears.”I spend my self, that there might be more light,More loveliness, more joy for other men.Not for one moment takes my ardent breastRepose from burning; Friday does not shame (iv)My restless week of unremitting toil.Wasted is now my spirit’s envelope;My glowing sigh is sullied all with dust.When God created me at Time’s first dawnA lamentation quivered on the stringsOf my melodious lute, and in that noteLove’s secrets stood revealed, the ransom-priceOf the long sadness of the tale of Love;Which music even to sapless straw impartsThe ardency of fire, and on dull clayBestows the daring of the reckless moth.Love, like the tulip, has one brand at heart, And on its bosom wears a single rose;And so my solitary rose I pinUpon your turban, and cry havoc loudAgainst your drunken slumber, hoping yetTulips may blossom from your earth anewBreathing the fragrance of the breeze of Spring.


(i) Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) being commonly called the Seal of the Prophets because in him God concluded His series of revelations to manking. Iqbal borrows the term and refers to the

Islamic community as the Seal of the Peoples.

(ii) The reference is to the continuing fashion among Urdu poets to imitate the conventional love-lyrics of Persia in which the images mentioned are very common.

(iii) Alexander the Great is said in Persian legend to have possessed a magic mirror in which he saw the whole world at a glance.

(iv) Friday being the day for Muslim congregational prayer.


“Jang-e-yarmook ka aik waaqiah”.

The first verse of that poem can be translated as:

The gallant Arab warriors were ready with their swords

The land of Syria was awaiting for them as a bride waits for henna to be put on her

“The prayer of Taariq bin Ziyaad in the battlefield in Spain”. One verse in that poem reads

KhayabaN mein hey muntazir lala kub sey

Qubaa chaheay iss ko khoon e arab se

The lala (a kind of flower) has been waiting for long in the garden

It needs its color from the blood of the Arabs

“Khitaab ba jawaanaan e Islam” in which he says to the young Muslim.

You have been reared by a nation that crushed the crown of Darius under its feet

O what should I tell you of those desert dwellers

They were a people that overcame the whole world

They understood the world

They beautified the world

They took care of the wrold

They were the founders of the greatest civilization

They showed the world how to govern

And they were simply a people from the deserts of Arabia i.e. the home of the camel herders

Iqbal also says in one of his poems

I would let the hindu in India open his mouth

Only if he is not going to say anything derogatory about Arab leaders

Hasn’t our nation been taught the rule

To get close to Mohammad you have to get away from Abu Lahab

The world of Arabs is not founded on geographic boundaries

The world of Arabs is simply founded on belief in Mohammad

Iqbal. Iqbal also said

If the Jews have a right over Palestine

Why don’t then the Arabs have a right over Spain

The people who ask such questions about who was who should first come out of their shell of fake ethnic pride and unfouded sense of superiortity.

Iqbal was a poet and a sensitive human being. You donot have to be a flower to talk about a flower. You donot have to be an ant to talk about an ant.

You donot have to be a horse to talk about a horse. You do not have to be god to talk about god.

A poet uses everyday things to convey his message to us. That is why Iqbal used the “Wise Baloch” to teach us the wise stuff.

Going back to Iqbal being an Arab for a moment. Iqbal said in one of his


I am descended from a pure Somnathi family

My ancestors were true lovers and worshippers of Laat and Manaat

note: Somnath was a big hindu temple about 1000 years ago.

Laat and manaat are names of two idols (gods) which have been

worshipped in some form or the other by all pagan people and

were the major attaraction in the Kaaba before Islam.

Here he talks about his Hindu lineage and that also from a pure Brahmin family. So even though Iqbal’s ancestors had been stalwarts of Hinduism until a couple hundred years ago the light of Islam had pentrated their hearts now. And there is no turning back from the straight path once it has been found.

That is not all Iqbal also uses Khushaal Khan Khattak in a similar poem as “The advice of a Wise Baloch” to convey the message of self-respect and developing self-confidence in one’s self. The poem is titled “The advice of Khushaal Khan Khattak”. Also Iqbal has a whole set of twenty poems and ghazals under a section titled “Mehraab Gul Afghaan ke Afkaar”. Meaning “The thoughts of Mehraab Gul Afghaan”. I don’t know who Mehraab Gul was. But Iqbal uses his thoughts to teach something positive to everybody.

So should we ask if Iqbal was a pure Pashtoon. If he was not then he cannot use the positive qualities of Pushtoons and teach them to others who lack them.


I would use the words of Iqbal himself to conclude

BayaaN meiN nuktae tawheed to aa sakta hey

terey dimagh meiN butkhaana ho to kiya keheay

Yes! I can explain the idea of oneness of God to you

But if you have a whole temple full of idols in your head

what good it would do for me to explain all that tawheed to you

Excerpts from the Mysteries of Selflessness By Muhammad Iqbal

Translated by A. J. Arberry.

The story of Bu Ubaid and Jaban, in Illustration of Muslim Brotherhood

A certain general of King Yazdajird

(i) Became a Muslim’s captive in the wars;A Guebre he was, inured to every trickOf fortune, crafty, cunning, full of guile.He kept his captor ignorant of his rankNor told him who he was, or what his name,But said, ” I beg that you will spare my lifeAnd grant to me the quarter of Muslims gain.”The Muslim sheathed his sword. “To shed thy blood”,He cried, “were impious and forbidden sin.”When Kaveh’s banner had been rent to shreds,

(ii)The fire of Sasan’s sons turned all to dust

(iii)It was disclosed the captive Jaban was,Supreme commander of the Persian host.Then was his fraud reported, and his bloodPetitioned of the Arab general;Bu Ubaid, famed leader of the ranksFrom far Hejaz, who needed not the aidOf armies to assist his bold resolveIn battletide, thus answered their request.“Friends, we are Muslims, strings upon one luteAnd of one concord. Ali’s voice attunes With Abu Dharr’s, although the throat be that of Qanbar or Bilal. Each one of us

(iv)Is trustee to the whole CommunityAnd one with it, in malice or in truce.As the Community is the sure baseOn which the individual rests secure,So is its covenant his sacred bond.Though Jaban was a foeman to Islam,A Muslim granted him immunity;His blood, O followers of the best of men,May not be spilled by any Muslim sword.”____

i) Yazdajird was the last Sassanian king of Persia

ii)Kaveh, a smith of Isphan, raised the standard of revolt against the usurping tyrant Zahhak and established Feridun on the throne of Persia.iii)Sasan was the eponymous founder of the Sassanian dynasty,overthrown at the Arab conquest of Persia.iv)Qanbar, formerly a slave, was manumitted by caliph Ali. Bilal, formerlyan Abyssinan slave, was taken by the Prophet at the muezzin.

Excerpts from the Mysteries of Selflessness By Muhammad Iqbal Translated by A. J. Arberry.

The story of Sultan Murad and the Architect, in Illustration of Muslim Equality

An architect there was, that in Khojand Was born, a famous craftsman of his kindWorthy to be an offspring of Farhad.Sultan Murad commanded him to buildA mosque, that which pleased not his majesty,So that he waxed right furious at his faults.The baleful fire flared in the ruler’s eyes;Drawing his dagger, he cut off the handOf that poor wretch, so that the spurting bloodGushed from his forearm. In such hapless plightHe came before the cadi, and retoldThe tyrant’s felony, that had destroyedThe cunning hand which shaped the granite rock.‘O thou whose words a message are of Truth”He cried, “whose toil it is to keep aliveMuhammad’s Law, I am no ear-bored slavePatient to wear the ring of monarchs’ might.Determine my appeal by the Quran!”The upright cadi bit his lips in ireAnd summoned to his court the unjust kingWho, hearing the Quran invoked, turned paleWith awe, and came like any criminalBefore the judge, his eyes cast down in shame,His cheeks as crimson as the tulip’s glow.On one side stood the appellant, and on oneThe high exalted emperor, who spoke.“I am ashamed of this that I have wroughtAnd make confession of my grievous crime.”“In retribution”, quoth the judge, “is life,And by the law life finds stability.The Muslim slave no less is than free menNor is the emperor’s blood of richer hueThan the poor builder’s.” Listening to these words Of Holy Writ, Murad shook off his sleeveAnd bared his hand. The plaintiff thereuponNo longer could keep silence. “God commandsJustice and kindliness,” recited he.“For God’s sake, and Muhammad’s,” he declared,“I do forgive him.” Note the majestyOf the Apostle’s Law, and how an antTriumphantly outfought a Solomon!Before the tribunal of the QuranMaster and slave are one, the mat of reedsCoequal with the throne of rich brocade.QUAID

>*16 November: Choudhary Rahmat Ali Day*

Munir M. Pervaiz contributions on Iqbal’s humor:

Shaikh sahib bhi to pardey kay ko’i haami naheeN

Muft meiN college kay larkey unn say bad zan ho gaey

Wa’az meiN farma diya kal aap nay yeh saaf saaf

Parda aakhir kiss say ho jab mard hi zan ho gaey”

*******Woh miss boli iraada khood kushi ka jab kiya meiN nay

Mohazzab hay to ay aashiq, qadam bahar na dhhar had say

Na jur’at hay na khanjar hay,to qasd e khood kuushi kaisa

Yeh maana dard e naa kaami gaya tera guzar had say

Kaha meiN kay” ay jan e jahaaN kuchh naqd dilwa do

Kiraaey par manga loonga ko’i afghaan sarhad say”

****************Takraar thhi mazaar’e o maalik meiN aik rauz

Dono yeh keh rahey thhey mera maal hay zameeN

Kehta thha woh, karey jo zaraa’at ussi ka khait

Kehta thha yeh, kay aql thikaaney teri naheeN

Pochha zameeN say meiN kay , hay kiss ka maal too

Boli mujhhey to hay faqat iss baat ka yaqeeN

Maalik hay ya mazaar’a e shoreeda haal hayJ

o zeir e aasmaaN hay woh dharti ka maal hay —-Ta abad aadmi ko dunya meiN

Zindigi ka khiraaj deina hayTifl e nau za’ida ko kal say mujhhey

Zehr e rasm o riwaaj deina hay

Another poem from Allama Iqbal’s Baal e jibra’eel for lovers of great Urdu poetry:


Hazir hua meiN sheikh e mujaddid ki lehd par

Woh khaak kay hay zeir e falak matla e anwaar

Iss khaak kay zarroN say heiN sharminda sitaarey

Iss khaak meiN posheeda hay woh sahib e israr

Gardan na jhukee jiss ki jahaangir kay aagey

Jiss kay nafas e garm say hay garmi e ahraar

Woh hind meiN sarmaya e millat ka nigehbaaN

Allah nay bar waqt kiya jiss ko khabardaar

Ki arz yeh meiN nay kay ata faqr ho mujhh ko

AankheiN meri beena heiN wa lekin naheeN baidaar

Aaee yeh sada silsila e faqr hua bandHei

N ahl e nazar kishwar e punjaab say baizaar

Aarif ka thikaana naheeN woh khitta kay jiss meiN

Paida kulah e faqr say ho turra e dastaar

Baqi kulah e faqr say thha walwala e haq

TurroN nay charhaya nasha e khidmat e sarkaar

Merey jism o rooh to kab kay, dhoop meiN jal kar raakh huey

Tuum jinn say miltey rehtey ho, woh to merey saaey heiN


Mazhab meiN bohat taaza pasand iss ki tabi’atKar lay kahiN manzil to guzarta hay bohat jaldTahqeeq ki baazi ho to shirkat nahiN kartaHo khail mureedi ka to harta hay bohat jald !Taaweel ka phanda koi sayyad lagaa dayYeh shaakh e nasheman say utarta hay bohat jald !


Maikaday meiN aik din ik rind e zeerak nay kahaHay hamaaray shehr ka waali gadaa e bay hayaTaaj pehnaya hay kiss ki bay kulaahi nay ussayKiss ki uryaani nay bakhshi hay ussay zarreeN qabaUss kay aab e laala gooN ki khoon e dehqaaN say kasheedTerey merey khait ki matti hay uss ki keemyaUss aky nemat khaaney ki har cheez hay maangi hoeeDeney waala kaun hay ? mard e ghareeb o bay nawaMaangnay waala gada hay sadqa maangey ya khiraajKoi maaney yaa na maaney meer o sultaN sab gada

The following is a reproduction in toto of a letter written by Iqbal to the editor of the London Times, dated October 15, 1931. //



Sir,-Writing in your issue of October 3 last, Dr. E. Thompson has torn the following passage from its context in my presidential address to the All-India Moslem League of last December, in order to serve as evidence of “Pan-Islamic plotting”:- /

I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind, and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State. Self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Moslem State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Moslems, at least of North-West India./

May I tell Dr. Thompson that in this passage I do not put forward a “demand” for a Moslem State outside the British Empire, but only a guess at the possible outcome in the dim future of the mighty forces now shaping the destiny of the Indian sub-continent. No Indian Moslem with any pretence to sanity contemplates a Moslem State or series of States in North-West India outside the British Commonwealth of Nations as a plan of practical politics.

Although I would oppose the creation of another cockpit ofcommunal strife in the Central Punjab, as suggested by some enthusiasts, Iam all for a redistribution of India into provinces with effective majorities of one community or another on lines advocated by the Nehru and the Simon reports. Indeed, my suggestion regarding Moslem provinces merelycarries forward this idea. A series of contented and well-organized Moslem provinces on the North-West Frontier of India would be the bulwark of India and the British Empire against the hungry generations of the Asiatic highlands.

Yours faithfully,


St. James’s court, S.W.1, Oct. 10.//

The delegation is led by Khalid Jaffar, Press Assistant to the Malaysian Deputy Prime MinisterAnwar Ibrahim,Raja Rajaratnam,N.V.Raman and Anwar Tahir who are all members of theResearch Institute. Briefing the newsmen on Saturday, Rajaratnam said the Conference will be the second of the seriesdesigned to highlight the accomplishments of the Asian scholars and intellectuals. He said the title of the upcoming conference is ‘Muhammad Iqbal and the Asian Renaissance.’ Rajaratnam said experts drawn from various countries will read papers on Iqbal and hisworks.Some of the topics are Iqbal:Worldview,Metaphysics and Mysticism,Iqbal onReform,Justice,Polity & Ethnic Relations, Iqbal and the Muslim World,Iqbal:East,West and the Renaissance.

Malaysia organising conference on Iqbal LAHORE (APP) — The Institute for Policy Research, Malaysia,is organising an internationalconference on poet philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal at Selangor from June 3 to 5. The three-day conference will highlight the works and achievements of the poet of the East . A four-member delegation of the Institute for Policy Research is currently visiting Pakistan to seekthe Government’s help in procuring various works of Iqbal for display during the conference.

He said the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has been invited to deliver keynote address on the openingday of the conference. The Malaysian scholar disclosed that an exhibition will also be organised on the occasion, displayingAllama Iqbal’s publications, books, manuscripts and photographs. Rajaratnam said Iqbal was a well known figure in his country especially among the Muslims and theconference has been designed to project him as an Asian thinker in the East Asia. ‘ The occasion will provide an excellent opportunity for scholars from other countries to exchange

Guftaar-e-syasat main watan aur hi kuch hai

Irshaad-e-Naboo’at (PBUH) main watan aur hi kuch hai

(Meanings: Guftaar-e-syasat = inpolitical terms; Irshad-e-Naboo’at (PBUH) = Sayings of Muhammad (PBUH))

*. Apney parwanon ko phir zoq-e-khud afrozi dey

Barq-e-daireena ko farman-e-jigar sozi dey

(Praying to God) (Meanings: Parwanon = Believers; zoq-e-khud afrozi = sense of self respect; Barq-e-daireena = Strength of old times; farman-e-jigar sozi = Faith)

*. Aankh ko baydaar ker dey wada-e-deedar say

Zinda ker dey dil ko soz-e-johar-e-guftaar say

(Praying to God) (Meanings: Aankh = vision; baydaar = conscious; wada-e-deedar = Promise of keeping true Faith; soz-e-johar-e-guftar = Faith)

*. Shab guraizan ho gi aakhir jalwa-e-khursheed say

Ye chaman mamoor ho ga naghma-e-Tauheed say

(Meanings: Shab guraizan ho gi aakhir jalwa-e-khursheed say = Sunshine will dominate the darkness of night eventually; chaman = referring to Islam; mamoor = blessed; naghma-e-tauheed = Islam)

*. Dilon ko markez-e-mehr-o-wafa ker

Hareem-e-Kibriya say aashna ker

Jissey nan-e-jaween bakhshi hai Tu nay

Ussey bazo-e-Haider bhi ata ker

(praying to God) (Meanings: Dilon = Hearts/insights/thoughts; markaz-e-mehr-o-wafa = Center of love and loyalty; Hareem-e-Kibriya = God; aashna = Familiar; Nan-e-jaween = determination; Bazu-e-Haider = Strength and faith of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him))

*. Azaim ko senon main baydaar ker dey

Nigah-e-Musalman ko talwaar ker dey

(Praying to God) (Meanings: Azaim = Motivations; senon = insights; baydaar = conscious)

*. Taqdeer kay paband nabatat-o-jamadat

Momin faqat ehkaam-e-ILahi ka hai paband

(Meanings: Taqdeer = Fortune; paband = restricted; nabatat-o-jamadat = low lives/ weak people; ehkaam-e-ILahi = Commandments of Allah)

*. Zameer-e-lala main roshan chiragh-e-aarzu ker dey

Chamman kay zarrey zarrey ko shaheed-e-justaju ker dey

(Praying to God) (Meanings: Zameer-e-lala = Insight of Muslims; roshan = enlighten; chiragh-e-aazru = Lamp of hopes; zarrey = each part; shaheed-e-justaju = strive to be stronger)

*. Bazu tera Tauheed ki quat say qawi hai

Islam tera des hai, tu Mustafawi hai

Nizara-e-daireena zamaney ko dikha dey

Aey Mustafawi! khaak main iss bu’t ko mila dey

(Meanings: Qawi = strong; des = country; Mustafawi = Referring to Muslims here; Nizara-e-daireena = Old times when Muslims used to be the most united and strong power)

*. Phir dilon ko yaad aa jayey ga paigham-e-sajood

Phir jabeen khaak-e-Haram say aashna ho jayey gi

Aankh jo kuch dekhti hai, lab pay aa sakta nahin

Mehw-e-hairat hon kay duniya kya say kya ho jayey gi

(Meanings: paigham-e-sajood = Message of Muhammad (PBUH); jabeen = foreheads; khak-e-Haram = referring to worship of Allah; lab = lips; mehw-e-hairat = amazed)


Nigah-e-faqr main shaan-e-sikandari kya hai?

Khiraaj ki jo gada ho, wo qaiseri kya hai?

Falaq nay ki hai ata un ko khaajgi kay jinhain

Khabar nahin rawish-e-banda parwari kya hai?

Kissey nahin hai tamanna-e-sarwari lekin

Khudi ki mout ho jis main, wo sarwari kya hai?

Buton say tujh ko umeedain, Khuda say no meedi

Mujhey bata tou sahi aur kaafri kya hai?

(Meanings: Nigah-e-Faqr main shan-e-sikandari kya hai = What is the worth of kingdom in eyes of a saint?; Khiraj ki jo gada ho, wo qeseri kya hai = Such a rule in which ruler is always worried about keeping it secure, is worthless; Falaq = Nature; Khaajgi = Ruling class; Khabar nahin = Ignored; rawish-e-banda parwari = Sense of serving humanity; tamanna-e-sarwari = Desires to rule; Khudi ki mout ho jis main wo sarwari kya hai = Such rule is insulting to gain which, self respect is required to be sacrificed; Buton = Idols (referring to fellow human beings here); umeedain = Expectations; no meedi = Disappointment; Kaafri = Non Muslim who donot believe in Oneness of God)

*. Aey Tair-e-Lahooti, uss rizq say mout achi

Jis rizq say aati ho, parwaz main kotahi

Aain-e-jawanmardi, haq goi-o-bay baaqi

Allah kay sheron ko, aati nahin rubaahi

(Meanings: Tair-e-Lahooti = Simile, addressing to Muslim youth; Rizq = food/income; Kotahi = Laziness, denotatively and connotatively referring to slavery here; Aain-e-Jawanmardi = Conditions to live with dignity; Haq goi = Honesty; Bay Baaqi = Bravery; Rubaahi = cunningness, hypocrisy)

*. Hai Fikr mujhey misra-e-saani ki zyada

Allah karey tujh ko ata Fuqr ki talwaar

Jo haath main ye talwaar bhi aa jayey tou Momin

Ya Khalid-e-Janbaaz hai, Ya Haider-e-Karrar

(Meanings: misra-e-saani = proceeding verse; Fuqr ki talwar = Strong Faith; Khalid-e-Janbaaz = Khalid Bin Waleed (May Allah be pleased with him); Haider-e-Karrar= Ali Ibn-e-Abu Talib (May Allah be pleased with him))

*. Wo kal kay gham-o-aish per kuch Haq nahin rakhta

Jo aaj khud afroz-o-jigar soz nahin hai

Wo qaum nahin laiq-e-hangama-e-farda

Jis qaum ki taqdeer main imroz nahin hai

(Meanings: gham-o-aish = thick n’ thin; khud afroz-o-jigar soz = A person with motivation and determination; Laiq-e-hangama-e-farda = worthy to survive anymore; imroz = Present)

*. Paani paani ho gaya sun ker Qalander ki ye baat

Tu jhuka jab ghair key aagey, na tann tera na mann

Apney mann main dub kay pa ja suragh-e-zindagi

Tu agar mera nahi banta, na ban, apna tou bann

(Meanings: paani paani ho gaya = ashamed of oneself; Qalander = Saint; Ghair = Stranger (British here); tann and mann = Body and Soul; suragh-e-zindagi = Connotatively referring to secrets to live prestigious life)

*. Ho terey bayaban ki hawa tujh ko gawara

Iss dasht say behter hai na Dilli na Bukhara

Jis simt main chahey, sift-e-sal-e-rawan chal

Wadi ye hamari hai, wo sehra bhi hamara

Ghairat hai bari cheez jahan-e-tag-o-dou main

Pehnati hai derwaish ko taj-e-sir-e-dara

Afraad kay haathon main hai akwaam ki taqdeer

Her fard hai millat kau muqaddar ka sitara

Deen haath say dey ker agar azad ho millat

Hai aisi tijarat main Musalaman ka khasara

(Dr. Iqbal is addressing British here)

(Meanings: Bayaban = referring to Britain here; gawara = acceptable; dasht = Desert denotatively (India connotatively); Simt = Direction; sift-e-sal-e-rawan = Continuous flow; Wadi = Valley; Sehra = Desert; Ghairat = Self Respect; Jahan-e-tag-o-dou = World of struggle; Derwesh = begger here; Taj-e-sir-e-dara= Royal crown; Afraad = People; Akwaam = Nations; Fard = Individual; Millat = Nation; Muqaddar = destiny; Deen = Islam; Tijarat = Deal/Trade agreement; Khasara = Loss)

*. Kabhi aey, Naujawan Muslim! taddabur bhi kiya tu ney?

Wo kya gardon tha tu jis ka hai ik toota hua tara

Tujhey uss qaum nay pala hai aaghosh-e-mohabbat main

Kuchal dala tha jis nay paon main taaj-e-sir-e-dara

(Meanings: Taddabur = To think; Gardon = Sky (Simile, group of Prophet (PBUH) and his companions here); Qaum = Nation (Muslims here); Aaghosh-e-Mohabbat = Caring protection; Kuchal = Trample; Taj-e-sir-e-dara = Royal crown)

*. Hawa-e-byaban say hoti hai kaari

Jawanmard ki zarbat-e-ghaaziyanan

Paltna, jhapatna, jhapat kay palatna

Lahu garm rakhney ka hai ik bahana

Parindon ki duniya ka derwesh hon main

Kay shaheen banata nahin aashiyana

(Meanings: Hawa-e-byaban = Deserts (referring to challenging tasks here); Kaari = Influential; Jawanmard = Brave man; Zarbat-e-Ghaziana = Daring strike; Lahu = Blood; Bahana = Excuse; Derwesh = Saint; Shaheen = Falcon (Muslim youth here); Aashiyana = Permanent residence)

*. Utha mat khana-e-shesha-e-farang kay ihsaan

Sifaal-e-Hind say meena-o-jaam paida ker

Hazar chasshmey teri sang-e-rah say phootey

Khudi main doob kay zarb-e-kaleem paida ker

(Meanings: Khana-e-sheesha-e-farang = Referring to British here; Sifaal-e-Hind = Referring to former united India (sub contient) here; Meena-o-jaam = Referring to necessities of life here; Chasshmey = Denotatively means fountains but connotative meanings here, referring to obstacles; Sang-e-rah = Track/path; Phootey = Emergence; Zarb-e-Kaleem = Powerful Strike)

*. Nahin tera nash-e-mann kasr-e-sultani kay gumband per

Tu Shaheen hai basera ker paharon ki chatanon per

(Meanings: nash-e-mann = home; kasr-e-sultani = denotatively, it stands for royal palace but here, it means ease and laziness; Basera = Shelter; Chatanon = Rocks)

*. Aghyaar kay ufkaar-o-takhayyul ki gadai

Kya tujh ko nahin apni khudi tak bhi rasai?

(Meanings: Aghyaar = Referring to British; Ufkaar = Policies; Takhayyul = Theories; Gadai= to beg; rasai = access)

*. Khudi ko ker buland itna kay her taqdeer say pehley

Khuda bandey say khud poochey bata teri raza kya hai

*. Ghulami main na kaam aati hain shamsheerain, na tadbeerain

Jo ho shok-e-yaqeen paida tou cut jaati hain zanjeerain

Koi andaza ker sakta hai iss kay zor-e-bazu ka?

Nigha-e-mard-e-momin say badal jati hain taqdeerain

(Meanings: Ghulami = Slavery; Shamsheerain = Swords; Tadbeerain = Plannings; Shok-e-yaqeen = Sense of self respect; Zanjeerain = restraints; Andaza= Guess; Zor-e-Bazu= Strength; Nigah-e-Mard-e-Momin = Glare of a Muslim (connotatively referring to strength of a strong faith Muslim); Taqdeerain = Destiny)


Quran main ho ghota zan, aey mard-e-Msualman

Allah karey tujh ko ata jiddat-e-kirdaar

Jo harf-e-Qul il afw main posheeda hai ab tak

Iss dour main shayad wo haqeeqat ho namudaar

(Meanings: ghota zan = Referring to read, consult and understand; Jiddat-e-Kirdaar = Strong faith/strong character; Harf-e-Qul il afw = Words of Quran; Posheeda = Hidden; Namudar = To expose)

*. Aashna apni Haqeeqat say ho, aey dehqan zara

Dana tu, kheti bhi tu, baran bhi tu, haasil bhi tu

Aah! kiski justaju awara rakhti hai tujhey?

Rah tu, rehro bhi tu, rehber bhi tu, manzil bhi tu

Kanpta hai dil tera andesha-e-tufaan say kya?

Nakhuda tu, beher tu, kashti tu, sahil bhi tu

Shola ban kay phoonk dey khashak-e-ghair Allah ko

Khauf-e-batil kya hai, kay hai ghaarat-e-batil bhi tu

(Meanings: Aashna = Familiarity; Dehqan = Hard worker/ ploughman; Dana = Fruit; Kheti = Final product; Baran = Blessed rain; Haasil = Reward; Justaju = Struggle denotatively but referring to “wait” here; awara = useless; Rah = Passage; Rahru = Passenger; Rehber = Guide; Manzil = Destination; Kanpta = To shiver; Andesha-e-tufan = Fear of thunder; Nakhuda = Sailor; Beher = Ocean; Kashti = Ship; Sahil = Bank of ocean; Shola = Flame; phoonk dey = Eliminate; Khashak-e-ghair Allah = Enemies of God; Khauf-e-batil = Fear of Oppression; Ghaarat-e-Batil = One who eliminates oppressor and oppression)

*. Aaj bhi ho jo Baraheem ka Imaan paida

Aag ker sakti hai andaz-e-gulistan paida

(Meanings: Baraheem = Abraham (PBUH); Imaan = Faith; Andaz-e-gulistan = Referring to miracle of Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham PBUH), who was thrown in fire and fire was converted into the roses)

*. Baykhatar kood para aatish-e-namrood main Ishq

Aqal hai mehw-e-tamasha-e-lab-e-baam abhi

Shewa-e-Ishq hai Azadi-o-deher aashubi

Tu hai zannari-e-bu’t khana-e-ayyam abhi

(Meanings: Baykhatar = Fearlessly; Kood para = Jumped in; Aatish-e-Namrood = Referring to fire of Namrood in which, prophet Abraham (PBUH) was thrown; Ishq = Referring to strong Faith and devotion of Prophet Abraham (PBUH); Aqal = Wisdom; Mehw-e-tamasha-e-lab-e-baam = Stunned/shocked/in state of disbelief; Shewa-e-Ishq = Strong Faith; Azadi = Freedom; Deher Aashubi = To get rid of slavery; Zannari-e-bu’t khana-e-ayyam = Under influence of idol worshipers)

*. Dekh ker rang-e-chamman ho na pareshan maali

Kaukab-e-ghuncha say kirnain hai chamakney wali

Khas-o-khashaak say hota hai gulistan khali

Gul ber andaz hai khoon-e-shuhda ki lali

Rang gardun ka zara dekh tou, unnabi hai

Ye nikaltey huey Suraj ki ufuk taabi hai

(Meanings: Rang-e-chamman = Referring to downtrodden enslaved Muslim nation; Pareshan = Worried, Maali = Referring to worried Muslims; Kaukab-e-ghuncha = Referring to new buds; Kirnain = Ray of shining light; Chamakney = Brightness; Khas-o-Khashaak = Trash/garbage; Gulistan = Referring to Muslim circle here; Gul ber Andaz = About to blossom; Khoon-e-Shuhda ki lali = Blood/sacrifices of martyrs; Gardun = Sky; Unnabi = Golden/colour of rising dawn; Nikaltey huey Suraj = Rising dawn; Ufuk taabi = Signs)

*. Hai jo hangama bapa yorish-e-balghari ka

Ghafilon kay liyey paigham hai baydari ka

Tu samjhta hai, ye saman hai dil azaari ka

Imtihan hai terey eesaar ka, khuddari ka

Kyon hirasan hai saheel-e-fars-e-aada sey?

Noor-e-Haq bujh na sakey ka nafs-e-aada sey

(Meanings: Hangama bapa yorish-e-balghari ka = Inclination of world towards atheist culture; Ghafilon kay liyey paigham hai baydari ka = Message to get up from slumber for ignored ones; Saman = Matter; Dil Azaari = To offend, to hurt; Imtihan = Test; Eesaar = Sacrifice; Khuddari = Self Respect; Hirasan = Scared of; Saheel-e-fars-e-ada = Oppressor; Noor-e-Haq = Ligh of Truth; Nafs-e-aada = Struggle of oppressor)

*. Misl-e-bu qaid hai ghncey main, pareshan ho ja

Rakht ber dosh hawa-e-chaminstan ho ja

Hai tinak maya, tu zarrey say byabaan ho ja

Naghma-e-moj say hangama-e-tufan ho ja

Quat-e-Ishq say her past ko bala ker dey

Deher main Ism-e-Muhammad (PBUH) say ujala ker dey

(Meanings: Misl-e-bu = Referring to true faith here; Qaid= Bound; Ghunchey= Bud; Rakht ber dosh hawa-e-chamnistan = Advising to start making efforts against oppressor; zarrey say bayaban = From zero to hero; Naghma-e-moj = Unity; Hangama-e-tufan = Revolutionary strength; Quat-e-Ishq = Referring to strong faith; past = Low/slave; Bala = Respected; Deher = Times of slavery; Ism-e-Muhammad (PBUH) = Advising to follow teachings of Muhammad (PBUH); Ujala = End of oppression)

*. Aqal hai teri saper, Ishq hai shamsheer teri

Merey derwesh! khilafat hai Jahangir teri

Ma siwa Allah kay liyey aag hai takbeer teri

Tu Musalman ho tou taqdeer hai tadbeer teri

Ki Muhammad (PBUH) say wafa tu nay, tou Hum terey hain

Ye Jahan cheez hai kya, loh-o-qalam terey hain

(Meanings: Aqal = Wisdom; Ishq = Faith; Shamsheer = Strength/tool/sword; Derwesh = Innocent man; Khilafat = System of Pious Caliphs of Islam; Jahangir = Way out; Ma siwa = Except; aag hai takbeer teri = Your destiny is hell fire; Taqdeer = Luck; Tadbeer = Policy; Wafa = Sincerity/loyalty; Hum = Referring to Allah as Dr. Iqbal is assuming that Allah is addressing His creature; Jahan = World; Loh-o-Qalam = Universe)

*. Uth kay ab bazm-e-jahan ka aur hi andaaz hai

Mashriq-o-maghrib main terey dour ka aghaaz hai

(Meanings: bazm-e-jahan = Present era; Mashriq-o-Maghrib = Across the globe; Aaghaz = Beginning)

*. Yaqeen muhkam; amal paiham, mohabbat fath-e-alam

Jihad-e-zindagani main hain ye mardon ki shamshirain

(Meanings: Yaqeen muhkam= Confidence; Amal paiham = Hard work with strong motivation; Mohabbat fath-e-Alam= Strive for excellence; Jihad-e-zindagani = Life; Mardon = Men; Shamshirain = Tools)

*. Fard Qaim Rabt-e-Millat say hai, tanha kuch nahin

Moj hai darya main, aur berun-e-darya kuch nahin

(Meanings: Fard = Individual; Qaim = to survive; Rabt-e-Millat = Unity of a nation; tanha = Alone; Moj hai darya main aur berun-e-darya kuch nahin = Simile, giving example of a wave which can’t survive out of ocean. Similarly, individual is strong as long as he is part of a nation. Together we stand, divided we fall)

*. Baykhabar! Tu johar-e-aina-e-ayyam hai

Tu zamaney main Khuda ka aakhri paighaam hai

(Meanings: Baykhabar = Ignored; Johar-e-aina-e-ayyam = Jewel of the time)

*. Nahin hai na umeed Iqbal apni kasht-e-weeran say

Zara namm ho tou ye mitti bari zerkhaiz hai saaqi

(Meanings: Na umeed = Disppointed; Kasht-e-weeran = Muslim youth; namm = Soft; mitti = referring to Muslim youth; zerkhaiz = productive)

*. Jo naghma zan thay khalwat-e-oraaq main tayyur

Rukhsat huey wo terey shajr-e-saya daar say

Shaakh-e-barida say sabaq andoz ho kay tu

Na-aashna hai qaida-e-rozgaar say

Millat kay saath rabta-e-ustawar rakh

Paiwasta reh shajar say, umeed-e-bahar rakh

(Meanings: Naghma zan = Singers; Khalwat-e-oraaq= referring to glory of ancestors; tayyur = birds; Rukhsat = to leave; shajr-e-sayadaar = Shady tree; Shaakh-e-barida = Ancestors; Sabaq andoz = To Learn lesson; Qaida-e-rozgar = Formula of success; Rabta-e-Ustawar = Being continuously in touch; Paiwasta = Hopeful; Shajar = Fruit (outcomes); Umeed-e-bahar = Good time)

*. Agar manzur ho tujh ko khizan na-aashna rehna

Jahan-e-rang-o-bu say pehley qata-e-aarzu ker ley

issi main dekh, muzmir hai kamal-e-zindagi tera

Jo tuj ko zeenat-e-daman koi aina ru ker ley

(Meanings: Khizan na aashna = Not familiar with downfall; Jahan-e-rang-o-bu = World; qata-e-aarzu = To be determined to achieve something; mizmir = hidden; kamal-e-zindagi = formula of success)

*. Bandagi main ghut kay reh jaati hai ik ju-e-kam aab

Aur azadi main behr-e-baykaran hain zindagi

Kulzam-e-hasti say tu ubhra hai manind-e-hibab

Iss zayan khaaney main tera imtihan hai zindagi

(Meanings: Bandagi = Slavery; ghut = Exploitation; ju-e-kam aab = large amount of water; behr-e-baykaran = powerful strength; Kulzam-e-hasti = Humanity; Ubhra = Emerged; Manind-e-Hibab = Like a saviour; zayan khaaney = Referring to world)

*. Ye ghari mehsher ki hai, tu arsa-e-mehsher main hai

Paish ker ghaafil, amal koi agar daftar main hai

(Meanings: ghari = Time; mehsher = Day of resurrection; arsa-e-mehsher = Era of destruction; paish = to present; ghaafil = ignored; amal = something on one’s credit)

*. Rabt-o-zabt-e-millat-e-baiza hai mashriq ki nijaat

Asia waley hain iss nuktey say ab tak baykhabar

Phir syasat chor ker daakhil hisaar-e-deen main ho

Mulk-o-dolat hai faqat hifz-e-haram ka ik samar

Nas’l Muslim ki agar mazhab per muqaddam ho gayi

Urr gaya duniya say tu manind-e-khaak-e-reh guzar

Aik hon Muslim, Haram ki paasbani kay liyey

Neel kay saahil say ley ker ta-ba-khaak-e-Kashghar

Ta Khilafat ki bina duniya main ho phir ustawaar

La kaheen say dhoond ker islaaf ka qalb-o-jigar

Aey kay nashnasi khafi ra az jali, hoshyaar baash

Aey giraftar-e-Abu Bakar-o-Ali, hoshyaar baash

(Meanings: Rabt-e-zabt-e-millat-e-baiza = unity of Muslim nation; nijaat = freedom; nuktey = point; baykhabar = ignored; syasat = politics; hisaar-e-deen = Islam; hifz-e-haram = by product of religion; Nas’l = Race; muqaddam = priority; manind-e-khaak-e-reh guzar = Like dust of the road/being worthless; pasbanai = protection; Ta ba khak-e- Kashghar = Land of Kashghar; Ta Khilafat ki bina = Referring to Pious Caliphs and their system; ustawaar = reactivation; Islaaf = Ancestors; qalb-o-jigar = Strength and Faith; giraftar-e-Abu Bakar-o-Ali = Referring to those Muslims who always praise Abu Bakar and Ali for their bravery, but never follow them; hoshyar baash = Attention)

*. Kitaab-e-millat-e-baiza ki phir shiraza bandi hai

Ye shakh-e-Haashmi kerney ko hai phir barg-o-ber paida

Agar Usmanion pay toota koh-e-gham, tou kya gham hai?

Kay khoon-e-sad hazaar anjum say hoti hai seher paida

(Meanings: Kitaab-e-millat-e-baiza = Holy Quran; Shiraza bandi = Unity, integrity; Shaakh-e-Hashmi = Muslim Nation; Barg-o-ber = Roses and Jewels; paida = to produce; Koh-e-gham = Bundle of troubles; khoon-e-sad hazar anjum = Lots of sacrifices; Seher = Rising of Dawn)

*. Sabaq perh phir sadaqat ka, adalat ka, shujaat ka

Liya jayey ga tujh say kaam duniya ki imamat ka

(Meanings: Sabaq = Lesson; Saqadat = Truth; Adalat = Justice; Shujaat = Bravery; Imamt = Leadership)

*. Butan-e-rang-o-khoon ko torr ker millat main guum ho ja

Na turani rahey baaqi, na Irani, na Afghani

Mitaya qaiser-o-kisra kay istabdad ko kis nay?

Wo kya tha? zor-e-Haider, Faqr-e-Bu Zar, Siqd-e-Salmani

(Meanings: Butan-e-ran-o-khoon = those traditions or practices which are forbidden in Islam; Turani/Irani/Afghani = Regional status of Muslims; Mitaya = To eliminate; Qaiser-o-Kisra = Curel rulers who had been hard on Muslims; Istabdad = Cruelty; Zor-e-Haider = Strength of Ali (m.Allah.b.p.w.him); Faqr-e-Abu Zar = Faith of Abu Zar (m.Allah.b.p.w.him); Sidq-e-Salmani= Truth of Salman (m.Allah.b.p.w.him))

*. Jab iss angara-e-khaaki main hota hai yaqeen paida

Tou ker leta hai ye baal-o-per-e-rooh ul Amin paida

(Meanings: Angara-e-Khaaki = Human being; Yaqeen = Faith; baal-o-per = Qualities; Rooh ul Amin = Angel Gabriel (Jibraeel))

* . Hamara Narm ru qaasid (PBUH) payam-e-zindagi laya

Khabar deti theen jin jo bijliyaan, wo baykhabar niklay

Jahan main ahl-e-Imaan soorat-e-Khusheed jeetey hain

Idhar doobey, udher nikley, udher doobey, idhar nikley

(Meanings; Narm ru qasid = Muhammad (PBUH); payam-e-zindagi = Guide to live life in correct manner; Khabar deti thin jin ko bijliyan = Those who claimed that they are gods or most poweful; baykhabar = ignored; Ahl-e-Imaan = People of Faith (Muslims))

*. Yaqeen Afrad ka sarmaya-e-tameer-e-millat hai

Yahi qu’at hai jo surat-e-ger taqdeer-e-millat hai

(Meanings:Yaqeen = Faith; Afrad = People; sarmaya-e-tameer-e-millat = Assets of a nation; Qu’at = Strength/tool; surat-e-gar taqdeer-e-millat = fortune of Muslim nation)

*. Amal say zindagi banti hai Jannat bhi, Jahannum bhi

Ye Khaaki apni fitrat main na noori hai, na naari hai

Khrosh amoz-e-bulbul ho girah ghunchey ki wa ker dey

Kay tu iss gulsitan ka wastey baad-e-behari hai

(Meanings: Amal = Deeds; Khaaki = Human bening; fitrat = Nature; noori = saint; naari = evil)

*. Hawas nay ker diya hai tukrey tukrey no-e-insan ko

Akhu’at ka bayan ho ja, mohabbat ki zuban ho ja

Ye Hindi, wo Khurasani, ye Afghani, wo Turaani

Tu, aey sharminda-e-saahil! uchal ker baykaran ho ja

Khudi main doob ja ghaafil, ye sirr-e-zindagani hai

Nikal kay halqa-e-shaam-o-seher say Jawadan ho ja

(Meanings: Hawas = Lust; tukrey = pieces; no-e-insan = Human race; Akhu’at = Integrity; bayan = Advocate; Hindi/Khursani/Afghani/Turaani = Referring to regionalism and racism; sharminda-e-saahil = Muslim; uchal ker baykaran = getting united disregard of race/colour/region; Khudi = Self respect; sirr-e-zindagani = Secret of success; Halqa-e-shaam-o-seher = thick n’ thin; Jawadan = Ever living on the basis of some unique work)


(Meanings: Shorida = Desperately in love; Khab gah-e-Nabi (PBUH) = Tomb of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH); Misr-o-Hindustan = Egypt and India; Banay-e-Millat = Unity of Muslim nation; Mita = To eliminate; Un say wasta = Concern with British; na-ashna= Not Familiar; Anjuman = System/thoughts; Nayey Zamaney = Modern Era (Connotatively, referring to secular thoughts); Purani = Old, outdated (Connotatively, a taunt on Muslims who ignored Islamic teachings and followed British traditions due to inferiority complex of being slave of British)

*. kal aik shorida khab gah-e-Nabi (PBUH) per ro ro kay keh raha tha

Kay Misr-o-Hindustan kau Muslim banay-e-Milat mita rahey hain

Ye zairan-e-hareem-e-maghrib hazar rehber banain hamarey

Hamain bhala un say wasta kya, jo tujh(PBUH) say na-ashna rahey hain

Suney ga Iqbal, koun in ko, ye anjuman hi badal gayi hai

Nayey zamaney main hum ko purani batain suna rahey hain

* Masjid tou bana di shab bhar main, Iman ki hararat walon nay

Mann apna purana papi hai, barson main Namazi ban na saka

Kya khoob ameer-e-faisal ko sanawasi nay paigham diya

Tu naam-o-nasab ka Hijazi hai, per dil ka Hijazi ban na saka

Iqbal bara updeshak hai, mann baton main mo leta hai

Guftar ka ye ghazi tou bana, kirdar ka ghazi ban na saka

(Meanings: Masjid = Mosque; Shab bhar = Within a night; Iman ki hararat walon = Men with strong Faith; Papi = Sinner; Barson = Years; Namazi = Worshiper (referring to man of strong faith here); Ameer-e-Faisal = Leader of Muslims; Sanawwasi = Air; Paigham = Message; Naam-o-nasab = Race and Culture; Hijaazi = Muslim; Updeshak = Man with speaking power; mann mo lena = To impress; Guftar = Speeches Kirdar = Character)

*. Mata-e-Aql-o-Danish lutt gayi Allah walon ki

Ye kis Kafir ada ka ghamza-e-khunrez hai Saaqi

(Meanings: Mata-e-Aql-o-Danish = Creative thoughts and wisdom; Lutt = Robbed; Allah Walon = referring to Muslims here; Kafir = non Muslim; ghamza-e-khunrez = Evil planning; Saaqi = Friend)

*. Mujhey Tehzeeb-e-Hazir nay ata ki hai wo azadi

Kay zaahir main tou azaadi hai, baatin main giraftari

Tu, aey Maula-e-Yasrab (PBUH)! aap meri chara sazi ker

Meri Daanish hai afrangi, mera Imaan hai zannari

(Meanings: Tehzeeb-e-Hazir = Present Civilisation; Azadi = Freedom; Zaahir = Physical existence or denotation; Baatin = In reality or connotation; Giraftari = Bondage; Maula-e-Yasrab (PBUH) = Prophet Muhammad (PBUH); Chara Sazi = Treatment of ailments; Daanish = Wisdom; Afrangi = Inspired by British; Zannari = Adulterate)

*. Azab-e-Daanish-e-Hazir say ba khabar hon main

Kay main iss aag main phainka gaya hon misl-e-Khalil (PBUH)

(Meanings: Azab-e-Danish-e-Hazir = So called present civilisation; ba khabar = Informed, updated; phainka = Thrown; Misl-e-Khalil (PBUH) = Like Abraham (PBUH))

*. Barh kay Khyber say hai ye marka-e-deen-o-watan

Iss zamaney main koi Haider-e-Karrar bhi hai?

Manzil-e-rehrawan dur bhi dushwaar bhi hai

Iss kaafley main koi kaafla salaar bhi hai?

(Meanings: Barh kay = More than; Khyber = A place where Ali (m.Allah.b.p.w.him) won a historical fight; Marka-e-deen-o-watan = Challenge of raising the flag of Islam; Haider-e-Karrar = Ali (m.Allah.b.p.w.him); Manzil-e-Rehrawan = Destination; Dushwar = Tough; Kaafley = Caravan; Kaafla Salaar = Leader of Caravan)

*. Ye Dour apney Baraheem ki Talash main hai

Sanam Kada hai Jahan La ILa ha IL Allah

Kiya hai tu nay Mata-e-gharoor ka soda

Fareb-e-sod-o-ziyan La ILa ha IL Allah

Agarchey Bu’t hai Jamat ki aastino main

Mujhey hai Hukm-e-Azan La ILa ha IL Allah

(Meanings: Dour = Era; Baraheem = Abraham (Peace Be Upon Him); Talash = Search; Sanam Kada = Temple where idols are placed; Mata-e-gharoor = Referring to Faith here; Fareb-e-sod-o-ziyan = An agreement of loss; Agarchey = Although; Bu’t = Idol; Jamat = Group of worshipers who say prayers in Mosque; Aastino = Referring to insight faith here; Hukam-e-Azan = Command (from Allah) to speak truth)

*. Kiya gaya hai ghulami main mubtala tujh ko

Kay tujh say ho na saki Fuqr ki nighebani

Misaal-e-maah chamakta tha jis ka daagh-e-sajood

Khareed li hai farangi nay wo Musalmani

(Meanings: Mubtala = Imposition; Fuqr = Faith; Nighebani = Protection; Misaal-e-Mah = As graceful as crescent; Daagh-e-Sajood = A graceful mark on the forehead of worshipers; Khareed = Purchased; Farangi = British)

*. Sheeraza hua millat-e-merhoom ka abtar

Ab tu hi bata tera Musalman kidhar jayey?

Iss raaz ko ab faash ker, aey Rooh-e-Muhammad (PBUH)!

Ayaat-e-ILahi ka nigheban kidher jayey?

(Meanings: Sheeraza = Organisation; Millat-e-Merhoom = Referring to downtrodden Muslim nation here; Abtar = Worst; Faash = Expose; Rooh = Soul; Ayaat-e-ILahi = One who believes and follow Quran; Nigheban = Protector)

*. wo faqa kash kay mout say derta nahin zara

Rooh-e-Muhammad (PBUH) uss kay badan say nikal dou

Fikr-e-Arab ko dey key farangi takhayyulaat

Islam ko Hijaz-o-Yaman say nikaal dou

Afghanion ki ghairat-e-deen ka hai ye ILaaj

Mullah ko un kay koh-o-daman say nikaal dou

Ahl-e-Haram say un ki riwayaat cheen lo

Aahu ko murghzar-e-hatan say nikaal dou

Iqbal kay nafs say hai laaley ki aag tez

Aisey ghazal sira ko chamman say nikaal dou

Dr. Iqbal is assuming here that Satan is addressing to his followers.

(Meanings: Faqa kash = Poor man but of strong Faith; derta = Scared of; Badan = Body; Fikr = Thoughts; Takhayyulat= Concepts; Ghairat-e-deen = Strong Faith; ILaaj = Cure; Mullah = Referring to strong faith Muslim here; Koh-o-daman = Country (Afghanistan here); Ahl-e-Haram = Muslims; Riwayaat = Traditions; Aahu = Deer; Murghzar-e-Hatan= Land of Faith and peace; Nafs = Thoughts; Laley = Garden; Ghazal Sira = Reformer here)

*. Hai tawaf-o-Haj ka hangama agar baqi tou kya?

Kund ho ker reh gayi Momin ki taigh-e-bay nayam

Kis ki nomeedi pay hujjat hai ye farman-e-jadeed

Hai Jihad iss dour main mard-e-musalman per haram

(Meanings: Tawaf-o-Haj = Pilgrimage; Hangama = Activities; Kund = Dead/rusted; Taigh-e-beynayam = Courage and bravery; Nomeedi = Disappointment; Farman-e-Jadeed = New order; Jihad = Holy War)

*. Kiya riffat ki lazzat say na dil ko aashna tu ney

Guzari umer pasti main, misal-e-naqsh-e-pa tu ney

Ta’assub chor nadan, deher kay aina khaney main

Ye tasweerain hain teri jin ko samjha hai bura tu ney

Zaban say ger kiya tauheed ka dawa, tou kya haasil?

Banaya hai bu’t-e-pindaar ko apna khuda tu ney

(Meanings: Riffat = Dignity; Lazzat = Familiarity; Aashna = Familiar; Umer Pasti main= Low life; Misal-e-naqsh-e-pa= In a disgraceful manner/like a coward slave; Ta’assub = Revolt/Hatred; Nadan = Stupid; Deher = Darkness; Aina Khaney = Era; Tasweerain = Pictures; dawa = Claim; Bu’t-e-Pindar = Idol)

*. Satwat-e-Tauheed qaim jin namazon say hui

Wo namazain Hind main nazr-e-brahmin ho gayeen

(Meanings: Satwat-e-Tauheed = Strong Foundations of Islam; Qaim = Organised; Hind = India; Nazr-e-Brahmin = Dominated by Upper Caste Hindus)

*. Khird nay keh bhi diya LA ILA tou kya haasil?

Dil-o-zaban musalman nahin tou kuch bhi nahin

Ajab nahin kay pareshan hai guftagu meri

Farogh-e-subha pareshan nahin tou kuch bhi nahin

(Meanings: Khird = Intellect; Haasil = Reward; Dil-o-Zaban = Heart and Soul; Pareshan = Depressed)

*. Kabhi aey haqeeqat-e-muntazir, nazar aa libas-e-majaz main

kay hazar sajdey tarap rahey hain, meri jabeen-e-nyaz main

Jo main sir basajda hua kabhi, tou zameen say aney lagi sada

Tera dil tou hai sanam aashna, tujhey kya miley ga namaz main

(Meanings: Haqeeqat-e-Muntazir = Referring to God Almighty here; Libas-e-Majaz = Being Visible; Sajdey = To prostrate; Jabeen-e-nayaz= Forehead; sir basajda = ToProstate; Sada = Voice; Sanam Aashna = Beloved of idols)

*. Tamaddun, tasawwuf, shariat, kalaam

Butaan-e-Ajam kay pujari tamam

Haqeeqat khurafaat main kho gayi

Ye ummat riwayaat main kho gayi

(Meanings: Tamaddun = Traditions; Tasawwuf = Mysticism; Shariat = Islamic Law (referring to fake Islamic law created by so called scholars in self interest, in name of Islam); Kalam = To praise (referring to hypocrisy of such Muslims, whose worship is to impress people instead of pleasing God. Those for whom, last three verses of Surah Maa’on in Noble Quran have been revealed); Butaan-e-Ajam = gods of other religions; Pujari = Worshipers; Haqeeqat = Truth (referring to original teachings of Islam); Khurafaat = Senseless things; Ummat = (Muslim) Nation; Riwayaat = Traditions)

*. Haath bayzor hain, ILhaad say dil khugar hain

Ummati bais-e-ruswai-e-paighambar (PBUH) hain

Bu’t shikan uth gayye, baqi jo rahey Bu’t ger hain

Tha Baraheem Pidr, aur ye Pisr-e-Aazr hain

Koi qabil ho tou HUM shan-e-kai detey hain

Dhoondney waley ko duniya bhi nayi detey hain

(This verse is taken from poem “Jawab-e-Shikwa” and Dr. Iqbal is assuming that Allah Himself is addressing to Muslims)

(Meanings: Bayzor = Weak; ILhaad = Apostasy; Khugar = Convinced; Ummati = Muslims; Bais-e-ruswai-e-paighambar (PBUH) = Matter of depression for Prophet (PBUH); Bu’t Shikan = True and determined Muslims; Bu’t ger = Lovers of idols; pisr-e-aazar = Followers of Aazar, an idol maker; Qabil = Competant; Shan-e-Kai = Success; Dhoondney = Search)

*. Kis qadar tum pay garan subha ki baydari hai

Hum say kab pyar hai, haan neend tumhain pyari hai

Taba-e-azad per qaid-e-ramzan bhaari hai

Tumhi keh dou, yahi aain-e-wafadari hai?

Qaum Mazhab say hai, Mazhab jo nahin tum bhi nahin

Jazb-e-baham jo nahin, mehfil-e-anjum bhi nahin

(Meanings: Qadar = Extent; Garan = Tough; Subha ki baydari = Referring to get up for morning prayers; Hum = Referring to God here as Dr. Iqbal is assuming that God is addressing Muslims; Neend = Referring to preferring other things over prayers by Muslims; Taba-e-Azad = Written in taunting way, referring to careless nature of Muslims; Qaid-e-Ramzan = Taunting again, referring to Muslims who take holy month of Ramadan as a burden or liability to be released unwillingly; Ain-e-wafadari = Rule of submission and sincerity; Mazhab = Religion; Jazb-e-baham = Joint efforts; Mehfil-e-Anjum = Success and fruitful results)

*. Jin ko aata nahin duniya main kli fun, tum ho

Nahin jis qaum ko parwa-e-nash-e-mann, tum ho

Bijliyan jis main hon aasuda wo khurmen, tum ho

Baich khaatey hain jo Islaaf kay madfan, tum ho

Thay tou A’ba wo tumharey hi magar tum kya ho?

Haath per haath dharey muntazir-e-farda ho?

(Meanings: Funn = Skill; Parwa-e-nash-e-mann = Strive for excellence and prosperity; Bijliyan = Referring to creative and constructive ideas; Islaaf = Forefather; Madfan = Coffins; A’ba = Ancestors; Muntazir-e-Farda = Waiting for some help)

*. Manfia’t aik hai iss qaum ki nuqsaan bhi aik

Aik hi sab ka Nabi (PBUH), Deen bhi, Imaan bhi aik

Harm-e-Pak bhi, Allah bhi, Quran bhi aik

Kuch bari baat thi hotey jo Musalmaan bhi aik?

Firqa bandi hai kahin, aur kahin zaatain hain

Kya zamaaney main pinapnay ki yahi batain hain?

(Meanings: Manfia’t = Profit; Nuqsaan = Loss; Harm-e-Pak = Referring to Khana-e-Kaba; Firqa bandi = Sectarian culture; Zaatain = Caste System; Pinapney = To progress)

*. Koun hai tarak-e-Aain-e-Rasool-e-Mukhtar (PBUH)?

Maslehet waqt ki hai kis kay amal ka mayaar?

Kis ki aankhon main samaya hai sha’ar-e-aghyaar

Ho gayi kis ki nigah tarz-e-salaf say bayzaar

Qalb main soz nahin, rooh main ihsaas nahin

Kuch bhi paighan-e-Muhammad (PBUH) ka tumhain pass nahin

(Meanings: Tarak-e-Aain-e-Rasool-e-Mukhtar (PBUH) = Those who have rejected/ignored teachings of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH); Maslehet = Compromise; Sha’ar-e-aghyaar = Impressed by non Muslims; Nigah = Vision; Tarz-e-Salaf = Practices of Ancestors; bayzaar = tired of/ fed up; Qalb = Heart; Soz = sense of responsibility; Rooh = Soul; Ihsaas = sensibility; Paigham-e-Muhammad (PBUH) = Message of Muhammad (PBUH); pass = care)

*. Shor hai ho gayey duniya say Musalman nabood

Hum yeh kehtey hain kay thay bhi kahin Muslim mojud?

Wuza main tum ho Nasara, tou tamaddun main hanud

Ye Musalman hain, jinhain dekh kay sharmain Yahud

Yun tou Syed bhi ho, Mirza bhi ho, Afghan bhi ho

Tum sabhi kuch ho batao tou Musalmaan bhi ho?

(Meanings: shor = noise; nabood = Eliminated; Mojud = Present; Wuza = Outer apperances; Nasara = Christians; Tamaddun = Life style; Hanood = Hindus; Sharmain Yahood = referring to ‘better than Jews’)

*. Her koi zoq-e-may-e-mast-e-tan aasani hai

Tum musalmaan ho, ye andaz-e-musalmani hai?

Haideri fuqr hai, nay dolat-e-Usmani hai

Tum ko islaaf say kya nisbat-e-rohani hai?

Wo zamaney main mo’aziz thay musalman ho ker

Aur tum khawar huey, tarak-e-Quran ho ker

(Meanings: Zoq-e-may-e-mast-e-tan aasani = Lazy/ dull/ leisure minded; Andaz-e-Musalmani = Ways of Muslims; Haideri Fuqr = Spiritual values of Ali (m.Allah.b.p.w.him); Dolat-e-Usmani = Wealth of Usman (m.Allah.b.p.w.him); Islaaf = Ancestors; Nisbat-e-rohani = Spirutual inheritance; Wo = Referring to companions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH); Mo’aziz = Respected; Khawar = Insulted; Tarak-e-Quran = Those who rejected/ignored Quran)

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